Volume 95, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



A universal hepatitis B vaccination program for infants was adopted in Indonesia in 1997. Before its implementation, the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)–positive individuals in the general population was approximately 5–10%. The study aimed to investigate the hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological status and molecular profile among children, 15 years after adoption of a universal infant vaccination program in Indonesia. According to the Local Health Office data in five areas, the percentages of children receiving three doses of hepatitis B vaccine are high (73.9–94.1%), whereas the birth dose coverage is less than 50%. Among 967 children in those areas, the seropositive rate of HBsAg in preschool- and school-aged children ranged from 2.1% to 4.2% and 0% to 5.9%, respectively. Of the 61 HBV DNA–positive samples, the predominant genotype/subtype was B/. Subtype was identified in genotype C for the first time in this population. Six samples (11.5%) had an amino acid substitution within the determinant of the gene region, and one sample had T140I that was suggested as a vaccine-escape mutant type. The low birth dose coverage and the presence of a vaccine-escape mutant might contribute to the endemicity of HBV infection among children in Indonesia.


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  • Received : 10 Feb 2015
  • Accepted : 12 Apr 2016
  • Published online : 07 Sep 2016

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