1921
Volume 93, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Brucellosis is a common bacterial zoonotic infection but data on the prevalence among humans and animals is limited in Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three counties practicing different livestock production systems to simultaneously assess the seroprevalence of, and risk factors for brucellosis among humans and their livestock (cattle, sheep, camels, and goats). A two-stage cluster sampling method with random selection of sublocations and households was conducted. Blood samples were collected from humans and animals and tested for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Human and animal individual seroprevalence was 16% and 8%, respectively. Household and herd seroprevalence ranged from 5% to 73% and 6% to 68%, respectively. There was a 6-fold odds of human seropositivity in households with a seropositive animal compared with those without. Risk factors for human seropositivity included regular ingestion of raw milk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.8–4.4), exposure to goats (herding, milking, and feeding) (aOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.5–3.8), and handling of animal hides (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.5–2.2). Attaining at least high school education and above was a protective factor for human seropositivity (aOR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.3–0.4). This linked study provides evidence of a strong association between human and animal seropositivity at the household level.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0113
2015-08-05
2017-11-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/93/2/224.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0113&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Corbel MJ, , 1997. Brucellosis: an overview. Emerg Infect Dis 3: 213221.[Crossref]
  2. Pappas G, Akritidis N, Bosilkovski M, Tsianos E, , 2005. Brucellosis. N Engl J Med 352: 23252336.[Crossref]
  3. Foster G, Osterman BS, Godfroid J, Jacques I, Cloeckaert A, , 2007. Brucella ceti sp. nov. and Brucella pinnipedialis sp. nov. for Brucella strains with cetaceans and seals as their preferred hosts. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57: 26882693.[Crossref]
  4. Corbel MJ, , 2006. Brucellosis in Humans and Animals. World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, World Organization for Animal Health, Geneva, Switzerland.
  5. Pappas G, Panagopoulou P, Christou L, Akritidis N, , 2006. Brucella as a biological weapon. Cell Mol Life Sci 63: 22292236.[Crossref]
  6. Greenfield RA, Drevets DA, Machado LJ, Voskuhl GW, Cornea P, Bronze MS, , 2002. Bacterial pathogens as biological weapons and agents of bioterrorism. Am J Med Sci 323: 299315.[Crossref]
  7. Malik GM, , 1997. A clinical study of brucellosis in adults in the Asir region of southern Saudi Arabia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 56: 375377.
  8. Henk LSSJC, , 2004. Contributions of biotechnology to the control and prevention of brucellosis in Africa. Afr J Biotechnol 12: 631636.
  9. Karadzinska-Bislimovska J, Minov J, Mijakoski D, Stoleski S, Todorov S, , 2010. Brucellosis as an occupational disease in the Republic of Macedonia. Macedonian J Med Sci 3: 251256.[Crossref]
  10. Dean AS, Crump L, Greter H, Hattendorf J, Schelling E, Zinsstag J, , 2012. Clinical manifestations of human brucellosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: 6.
  11. Solera J, Martinez-Alfaro E, Espinosa A, , 1997. Recognition and optimum treatment of brucellosis. Drugs 53: 245256.[Crossref]
  12. McDermott J, Grace D, Zinsstag J, , 2013. Economics of brucellosis impact and control in low-income countries. Rev Sci Tech 32: 249261.
  13. Memish ZA, Balkhy HH, , 2004. Brucellosis and international travel. J Travel Med 11: 4955.[Crossref]
  14. World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Ministry of Health, 2012. Technical Guidelines for Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response in Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya: Ministry of Health, 350.
  15. Maichomo MW, McDermott JJ, Arimi SM, Gathura PB, Mugambi TJ, Muriuki SM, , 2000. Study of brucellosis in a pastoral community and evaluation of the usefulness of clinical signs and symptoms in differentiating it from other flu-like diseases. Afr J Health Sci 7: 114119.
  16. Kadohira M, McDermott JJ, Shoukri MM, Kyule MN, , 1997. Variations in the prevalence of antibody to Brucella infection in cattle by farm, area and district in Kenya. Epidemiol Infect 118: 3541.[Crossref]
  17. McDermott JJ, Arimi SM, , 2002. Brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa: epidemiology, control and impact. Vet Microbiol 90: 111134.[Crossref]
  18. Commission on Revenue Allocation, 2011. Kenya County Fact Sheet, 65.
  19. Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, ICF Macro, 2010. Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008–09. Calverton, MD: KNBS and ICF Macro.
  20. Quantum GIS Development Team, 2014. Quantum GIS Geographic Information System 2.2.0: Open Source Geospatial Foundation Project.
  21. Schaeffer R, Mendenhall W, Ott L, , 1990. Elementary Survey Sampling (Statistics). Belmont, CA: Duxbury Press.
  22. World Health Organization, 2005. Immunization Coverage Cluster Survey: Reference Manual Immunization Vaccines and Biologicals, WHO Vaccine Assessment and Monitoring Team. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. 115.
  23. Ducrotoy MJ, Bertu WJ, Ocholi RA, Gusi AM, Bryssinckx W, Welburn S, Moriyon I, , 2014. Brucellosis as an emerging threat in developing economies: lessons from Nigeria. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e3008.[Crossref]
  24. Zolzaya B, Selenge T, Narangarav T, Gantsetseg D, Erdenechimeg D, Zinsstag J, Schelling E, , 2014. Representative seroprevalences of human and livestock brucellosis in two Mongolian provinces. EcoHealth 11: 356371.[Crossref]
  25. Bonfoh B, Kasymbekov J, Durr S, Toktobaev N, Doherr MG, Schueth T, Zinsstag J, Schelling E, , 2012. Representative seroprevalences of brucellosis in humans and livestock in Kyrgyzstan. EcoHealth 9: 132138.[Crossref]
  26. Baba MM, Sarkindared SE, Brisibe F, , 2001. Serological evidence of brucellosis among predisposed patients with pyrexia of unknown origin in the northeastern Nigeria. Cent Eur J Public Health 9: 158161.
  27. Kubuafor DK, Awumbila B, Akanmori BD, , 2000. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle and humans in the Akwapim-south district of Ghana: public health implications. Acta Trop 76: 4548.[Crossref]
  28. Dean AS, Bonfoh B, Kulo AE, Boukaya GA, Amidou M, Hattendorf J, Pilo P, Schelling E, , 2013. Epidemiology of brucellosis and q Fever in linked human and animal populations in northern Togo. PLoS One 8: e71501.[Crossref]
  29. Bernard F, Vincent C, Matthieu L, David R, James D, , 2005. Tuberculosis and brucellosis prevalence survey on dairy cattle in Mbarara milk basin (Uganda). Prev Vet Med 67: 267281.[Crossref]
  30. Magona JW, Walubengo J, Galiwango T, Etoori A, , 2009. Seroprevalence and potential risk of bovine brucellosis in zerograzing and pastoral dairy systems in Uganda. Trop Anim Health Prod 41: 17651771.[Crossref]
  31. Jergefa T, Kelay B, Bekana M, Teshale S, Gustafson H, Kindahl H, , 2009. Epidemiological study of bovine brucellosis in three agro-ecological areas of central Oromiya, Ethiopia. Rev Sci Tech 28: 933943.
  32. Al-Majali AM, Talafha AQ, Ababneh MM, , 2009. Seroprevalence and risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Jordan. J Vet Sci 10: 6165.[Crossref]
  33. El Sherbini A, Kabbash I, Schelling E, El Shennawy S, Shalapy N, Elnaby GH, Helmy AA, Eisa A, , 2007. Seroprevalences and local variation of human and livestock brucellosis in two villages in Gharbia Governorate, Egypt. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101: 923928.[Crossref]
  34. Makita K, Fevre EM, Waiswa C, Eisler MC, Thrusfield M, Welburn SC, , 2011. Herd prevalence of bovine brucellosis and analysis of risk factors in cattle in urban and peri-urban areas of the Kampala economic zone, Uganda. BMC Vet Res 7: 17466148.[Crossref]
  35. Schelling E, Diguimbaye C, Daoud S, Nicolet J, Boerlin P, Tanner M, Zinsstag J, , 2003. Brucellosis and Q-fever seroprevalences of nomadic pastoralists and their livestock in Chad. Prev Vet Med 61: 279293.[Crossref]
  36. Muendo EN, Mbatha PM, Macharia J, Abdoel TH, Janszen PV, Pastoor R, Smits HL, , 2012. Infection of cattle in Kenya with Brucella abortus biovar 3 and Brucella melitensis biovar 1 genotypes. Trop Anim Health Prod 44: 1720.[Crossref]
  37. Ahmed MO, Elmeshri SE, Abuzweda AR, Blauo M, Abouzeed YM, Ibrahim A, Salem H, Alzwam F, Abid S, Elfahem A, Elrais A, , 2010. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in animals and human populations in the western mountains region in Libya, December 2006–January 2008. Euro Surveill 15: 19625.
  38. Aworh MK, Okolocha E, Kwaga J, Fasina F, Lazarus D, Suleman I, Poggensee G, Nguku P, Nsubuga P, , 2013. Human brucellosis: seroprevalence and associated exposure factors among abattoir workers in Abuja, Nigeria—2011. Pan Afr Med J 16: 103.[Crossref]
  39. Mukhtar F, , 2010. Brucellosis in a high risk occupational group: seroprevalence and analysis of risk factors. J Pak Med Assoc 60: 10311034.
  40. John K, Fitzpatrick J, French N, Kazwala R, Kambarage D, Mfinanga GS, MacMillan A, Cleaveland S, , 2010. Quantifying risk factors for human brucellosis in rural northern Tanzania. PLoS One 5: e9968.[Crossref]
  41. Kozukeev TB, Ajeilat S, Maes E, Favorov M, , 2006. Risk factors for brucellosis–Leylek and Kadamjay districts, Batken Oblast, Kyrgyzstan, January–November, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1: 3134.
  42. Irmak H, Buzgan T, Evirgen O, Akdeniz H, Demiroz AP, Abdoel TH, Smits HL, , 2004. Use of the Brucella IgM and IgG flow assays in the serodiagnosis of human brucellosis in an area endemic for brucellosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70: 688694.
  43. Serra J, Vinas M, , 2004. Laboratory diagnosis of brucellosis in a rural endemic area in northeastern Spain. Int Microbiol 7: 5358.
  44. Kasymbekov J, Imanseitov J, Ballif M, Schurch N, Paniga S, Pilo P, Tonolla M, Benagli C, Akylbekova K, Jumakanova Z, Schelling E, Zinsstag J, , 2013. Molecular epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility of livestock Brucella melitensis isolates from Naryn Oblast, Kyrgyzstan. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2047.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0113
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0113
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 07 Feb 2015
  • Accepted : 10 Apr 2015

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error