Volume 93, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Military personnel deployed to the Amazon Basin are at high risk for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). We responded to an outbreak among Peruvian Army personnel returning from short-term training in the Amazon, conducting active case detection, lesion sample collection, and risk factor assessment. The attack rate was 25% (76/303); the incubation period was 2–36 weeks (median = 8). Most cases had one lesion (66%), primarily ulcerative (49%), and in the legs (57%). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified () (59/61 = 97%) and () (2/61 = 3%). Being male (risk ratio [RR] = 4.01; = 0.034), not wearing long-sleeve clothes (RR = 1.71; = 0.005), and sleeping in open rooms (RR = 1.80; = 0.009) were associated with CL. Sodium stibogluconate therapy had a 41% cure rate, less than previously reported in Peru (∼70%; < 0.001). After emphasizing pre-deployment education and other basic prevention measures, trainees in the following year had lower incidence (1/278 = 0.4%; < 0.001). Basic prevention can reduce CL risk in deployed militaries.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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  • Received : 06 Feb 2015
  • Accepted : 22 Apr 2015
  • Published online : 05 Aug 2015

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