Volume 94, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Rodents play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic spp. However, in Angola, neither the natural reservoirs of these spirochetes nor leptospirosis diagnosis has been considered. Regarding this gap, we captured rodents in Luanda and Huambo provinces to identify circulating spp. Rodent kidney tissue was cultured and DNA amplified and sequenced. Culture isolates were evaluated for pathogenic status and typing with rabbit antisera; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were also performed. A total of 37 rodents were captured: (15, 40.5%), (9, 24.3%), and (13, 35.2%). Leptospiral DNA was amplified in eight (21.6%) kidney samples. From the cultures, we obtained four (10.8%) isolates belonging to the Icterohaemorrhagiae and Ballum serogroups of and genospecies, respectively. This study provides information about circulating leptospires spread by rats and mice in Angola.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. WHO, 2011. Report of the Second Meeting of the Leptospirosis Burden Epidemiology Reference Group. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. [Google Scholar]
  2. Collares-Pereira M, Mathias ML, Santos-Reis M, Ramalhinho MG, Duarte-Rodrigues P, , 2000. Rodents and Leptospira transmission risk in Terceira island (Azores). Eur J Epidemiol 16: 11511157.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Faine S, Adler B, Bolin C, Perolat P, , 1999. Leptospira and Leptospirosis. Melbourne, Australia: MediSci, 272. [Google Scholar]
  4. Collares-Pereira M, Korver H, Terpstra WJ, Santos-Reis M, Ramalhinho MG, Mathias ML, Oom MM, Fons R, Libois R, Petrucci-Fonseca F, , 1997. First epidemiological data on pathogenic leptospires isolated on the Azorean islands. Eur J Epidemiol 13: 435441.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. De Vries SG, Visser BJ, Nagel IM, Goris MG, Hartskeerl RA, Grobusch MP, , 2014. Leptospirosis in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Int J Infect Dis 28c: 4764.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Herbreteau V, Jittapalapong S, Rerkamnuaychoke W, Chaval Y, Cosson J-F, Morand S, , 2011. Protocols for Field and Laboratory Rodent Studies. Bangkok, Thailand: Kasetsart University Press, 2014. [Google Scholar]
  7. Johnson RC, Rogers P, , 1964. Differentiation of pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospires with 8-azaguanine. J Bacteriol 88: 16181623. [Google Scholar]
  8. Johnson RC, Harris VG, , 1967. Differentiation of pathogenic and saprophytic leptospires. I. Growth at low temperatures. J Bacteriol 94: 2731. [Google Scholar]
  9. Branger C, Blanchard B, Fillonneau C, Suard I, Aviat F, Chevallier B, André-Fontaine G, , 2005. Polymerase chain reaction assay specific for pathogenic Leptospira based on the gene hap1 encoding the hemolysis-associated protein-1. FEMS Microbiol Lett 243: 437445.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Barocchi MA, Ko AI, Ferrer SR, Faria MT, Reis MG, Riley LW, , 2001. Identification of new repetitive element in Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni and its application to PCR-based differentiation of Leptospira serogroups. J Clin Microbiol 39: 191195.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S, , 2013. MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol 30: 27252729.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Holt J, Davis S, Leirs H, , 2006. A model of leptospirosis infection in an African rodent to determine risk to humans: seasonal fluctuations and the impact of rodent control. Acta Trop 99: 218225.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Jobbins SE, Sanderson CE, Alexander KA, , 2013. Leptospira interrogans at the human-wildlife interface in northern Botswana: a newly identified public health threat. Zoonoses Public Health 61: 113123.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Halliday JE, Knobel DL, Allan KJ, de C Bronsvoort BM, Handel I, Agwanda B, Cutler SJ, Olack B, Ahmed A, Hartskeerl RA, Njenga MK, Cleaveland S, Breiman RF, , 2013. Urban leptospirosis in Africa: a cross-sectional survey of Leptospira infection in rodents in the Kibera urban settlement, Nairobi, Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89: 10951102.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Houemenou G, Ahmed A, Libois R, Hartskeerl RA, , 2013. Leptospira spp. prevalence in small mammal populations in Cotonou, Benin. ISRN Epidemiol 2013: 18.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Haake DA, Suchard MA, Kelley MM, Dundoo M, Alt DP, Zuerner RL, , 2004. Molecular evolution and mosaicism of leptospiral outer membrane proteins involves horizontal DNA transfer. J Bacteriol 186: 28182828.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 12 Jan 2015
  • Accepted : 05 Jan 2016
  • Published online : 04 May 2016

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error