Volume 93, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



The World Health Organization recommends for tuberculosis retreatment a regimen of isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R), ethambutol (E), pyrazinamide (Z), and streptomycin (S) for 2 months, followed by H, R, E, and Z for 1 month and H, R, and E for 5 months. Using data from the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Program registry, this study determined the long-term outcome under programmatic conditions of patients who were prescribed the retreatment regimen in Kampala, Uganda, between 1997 and 2003. Patients were traced to determine their vital status; 62% (234/377) patients were found dead. Having ≤ 2 treatment courses and not completing retreatment were associated with mortality in adjusted analyses.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Jones-Lopez EC, Ayakaka I, Levin J, Reilly N, Mumbowa F, Dryden-Peterson S, Nyakoojo G, Fennelly K, Temple B, Nakubulwa S, Joloba ML, Okwera A, Eisenach KD, McNerney R, Elliott AM, Ellner JJ, Smith PG, Mugerwa RD, , 2011. Effectiveness of the standard WHO recommended retreatment regimen (category II) for tuberculosis in Kampala, Uganda: a prospective cohort study. PLoS Med 8: e1000427.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Caminero JA, , 2005. Management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and patients in retreatment. Eur Respir J 25: 928936 [Review].[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. WHO, 2004. Treatment of Tuberculosis Guidelines for National Programmes. 3rd edition. WHO/CDC/TB/2003.313. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  4. Ponce M, Ugarte-Gil C, Zamudio C, Krapp F, Gotuzzo E, Seas C, , 2012. Additional evidence to support the phasing-out of treatment category II regimen for pulmonary tuberculosis in Peru. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 106: 508510.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Temple B, Ayakaka I, Ogwang S, Nabanjja H, Kayes S, Nakubulwa S, Worodria W, Levin J, Joloba M, Okwera A, Eisenach KD, McNerney R, Elliott AM, Smith PG, Mugerwa RD, Ellner JJ, Jones-Lopez EC, , 2008. Rate and amplification of drug resistance among previously-treated patients with tuberculosis in Kampala, Uganda. Clin Infect Dis 47: 11261134.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Kang'ombe CT, Harries AD, Ito K, Clark T, Nyirenda TE, Aldis W, Nunn PP, Semba RD, Salaniponi FM, , 2004. Long-term outcome in patients registered with tuberculosis in Zomba, Malawi: mortality at 7 years according to initial HIV status and type of TB. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 8: 829836. [Google Scholar]
  7. Lukoye D, Cobelens FG, Ezati N, Kirimunda S, Adatu FE, Lule JK, Nuwaha F, Joloba ML, , 2011. Rates of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in Kampala–Uganda are low and not associated with HIV infection. PLoS One 6: e16130.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Tiemersma EW, van der Werf MJ, Borgdorff MW, Williams BG, Nagelkerke NJ, , 2011. Natural history of tuberculosis: duration and fatality of untreated pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV negative patients: a systematic review. PLoS One 6: e17601.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Saravia JC, Appleton SC, Rich ML, Sarria TM, Bayona J, Becerra MC, , 2005. Retreatment management strategies when first-line tuberculosis therapy fails. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 9: 421429. [Google Scholar]
  10. Furin J, Gegia M, Mitnick C, Rich M, Shin S, Becerra M, Drobac P, Farmer P, Hurtado R, Joseph JK, Keshavjee S, Kalandadze I, , 2012. Eliminating the category II retreatment regimen from national tuberculosis programme guidelines: the Georgian experience. Bull World Health Organ 90: 6366.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Getahun H, Harrington M, O'Brien R, Nunn P, , 2007. Diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in people with HIV infection or AIDS in resource-constrained settings: informing urgent policy changes. Lancet 369: 20422049.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Sterling T, Jenkins C, Jayathilake K, Shepherd B, McGowan C, Gotuzzo E, Veloso V, Cortes C, Padgett D, Crabtree-Ramirez B, , 2015. Culture-negative TB is associated with increased mortality in HIV-infected persons. Presented at the annual meeting of the Conference for retroviruses and opportunistic infections (CROI) abstract 833. February 2015, Seattle, WA. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 16 Dec 2014
  • Accepted : 19 Mar 2015
  • Published online : 08 Jul 2015

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error