Volume 93, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



After the emergence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)–HIV/AIDS coinfections has increased worldwide. Herein, we assessed the usefulness of an rK39-based immunochromatographic test (rK39 ICT) (DiaMed-IT LEISH; DiaMed AG, Cressier-sur-Morat, Switzerland) and a latex agglutination test (KAtex; Kalon Biological, Guildford, United Kingdom) for urinary antigen detection to diagnose VL in 15 HIV/AIDS patients from northeastern Brazil. VL diagnosis was based on clinical findings, cytology, serology, parasite DNA, and/or urinary antigen detection. VL was confirmed in seven out of 15 HIV/AIDS patients. Only three patients were positive in bone marrow cytology, three patients were conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive, while six were real-time PCR positive. All patients were direct agglutination test (DAT) (Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) positive; of these, four were positive by rK39 ICT and five by KAtex. Large-scale studies are needed to validate the use of the KAtex in the national public health laboratory network in Brazil, aiming at improving the diagnosis of VL in HIV/AIDS patients in this country.


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  • Received : 12 Dec 2014
  • Accepted : 26 Aug 2015
  • Published online : 04 Nov 2015

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