Volume 92, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



The Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database collects admission, diagnostic, and treatment data among 44 children's hospitals across the United States (U.S.) and presents an opportunity for travel-associated infectious disease (TAID) surveillance. We calculated cumulative incidence rates among children admitted to 16 PHIS hospitals for dengue, malaria, and typhoid, and pooled TAID using discharge codes from 1999 to 2012. We compared incidence rates before, during, and after the 2007–2009 economic recession. Among 16 PHIS hospitals during the study period (1999–2012), incidence of dengue and pooled TAID (malaria, dengue, typhoid fever) increased significantly, and rates of malaria and typhoid trended upward. Admissions for dengue and pooled TAIDs increased significantly among 16 children's hospitals across the United States from 1999 to 2012. The PHIS database may provide a useful surveillance tool for TAIDs among children in the United States.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Harvey K, Esposito DH, Han P, Kozarsky P, Freedman DO, Plier DA, Sotir MJ, , 2013. Surveillance for travel-related disease–GeoSentinel Surveillance System, United States, 1997–2011. MMWR Surveill Summ 62: 123. [Google Scholar]
  2. Steffen R, Rickenbach M, Wilhelm U, Helminger A, Schar M, , 1987. Health problems after travel to developing countries. J Infect Dis 156: 8491.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Hill DR, , 2000. Health problems in a large cohort of Americans traveling to developing countries. J Travel Med 7: 259266.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Steffen R, deBernardis C, Banos A, , 2003. Travel epidemiology–a global perspective. Int J Antimicrob Agents 21: 8995.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Hagmann S, Neugebauer R, Schwartz E, Perret C, Castelli F, Barnett ED, Stauffer WM, , 2010. Illness in children after international travel: analysis from the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Pediatrics 125: e1072e1080.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Wilson ME, Weld LH, Boggild A, Keystone JS, Kain KC, von Sonnenburg F, Schwartz E, , 2007. Fever in returned travelers: results from the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Clin Infect Dis 44: 15601568.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. NTTO Office NTaT, 2013. U.S. Travel to International Destinations Increased Two Percent in 2013. , ed. International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, Washington DC, United States of America. [Google Scholar]
  8. Doyle TJ, Glynn MK, Groseclose SL, , 2002. Completeness of notifiable infectious disease reporting in the United States: an analytical literature review. Am J Epidemiol 155: 866874.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. CHA, 2014. PHIS+: Augmenting the Pediatric Health Information System with Clinical Data. Children's Hospital Association. Available at: http://www.childrenshospitals.org/phisplus/index.html. Accessed October 27, 2014. [Google Scholar]
  10. Narus SP, Srivastava R, Gouripeddi R, Livne OE, Mo P, Bickel JP, de Regt D, Hales JW, Kirkendall E, Stepanek RL, Toth J, Keren R, , 2011. Federating clinical data from six pediatric hospitals: process and initial results from the PHIS+ Consortium. AMIA Annu Symp Proc 2011: 9941003. [Google Scholar]
  11. Hickey PW, Cape KE, Masuoka P, Campos JM, Pastor W, Wong EC, Singh N, , 2011. A local, regional, and national assessment of pediatric malaria in the United States. J Travel Med 18: 153160.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. United States General Services Administration, 2014. United States Census Bureau. Washington, DC: U.S. General Services Administration. [Google Scholar]
  13. ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance Committee (U.S.), National Center for Health Statistics, (U.S.), Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (U.S.), Stat!Ref (Online service), Teton Data Systems (Firm), 2015. ICD-9-CM. Volumes 1, 2, and 3. Jackson, WY: Teton Data Systems. [Google Scholar]
  14. Stock JH, Watson MW, National Bureau of Economic Research, , 2012. Disentangling the Channels of the 2007–2009 Recession. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1 online resource.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Papatheodorou A, Jaume R, Honggen X, , 2010. Global economic crisis and tourism: consequences and perspectives. J Travel Res 49: 3945.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2000. Summary of notifiable diseases, United States, 1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 48: 1104. [Google Scholar]
  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2000. Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of foodborne illnesses-selected sites, United States, 1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 49: 201205. [Google Scholar]
  18. Adams DA, Gallagher KM, Jajosky RA, Kriseman J, Sharp P, Anderson WJ, Aranas AE, Mayes M, Wodajo MS, Onweh DH, Abellera JP, , 2013. Summary of notifiable diseases, United States, 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 60: 1117. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 09 Dec 2014
  • Accepted : 31 Jan 2015
  • Published online : 06 May 2015

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error