Volume 93, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Heterogeneity in malaria exposure is most readily recognized in areas with low-transmission patterns. By comparison, little research has been done on spatial patterns in malaria exposure in high-endemic settings. We determined the spatial clustering of clinical malaria incidence, asymptomatic parasite carriage, and density in two villages in Mali exposed to low- and mesoendemic-malaria transmission. In the two study areas that were < 1 km in size, we observed evidence for spatial clustering of densities or malaria parasite carriage during the dry season. density and malaria prevalence appeared associated in some of our detected hotspots. However, many households with high parasite prevalence or high densities were located outside the identified hotspots. Our findings indicate that within small villages exposed to low- or mesoendemic-malaria transmission, spatial patterns in mosquito densities and parasite carriage are best detected in the dry season. Considering the high prevalence of parasite carriage outside detected hotspots, the suitability of the area for targeting control efforts to households or areas of more intense malaria transmission may be limited.


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  • Received : 01 Dec 2014
  • Accepted : 08 Apr 2015

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