1921
Volume 93, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Heterogeneity in malaria exposure is most readily recognized in areas with low-transmission patterns. By comparison, little research has been done on spatial patterns in malaria exposure in high-endemic settings. We determined the spatial clustering of clinical malaria incidence, asymptomatic parasite carriage, and density in two villages in Mali exposed to low- and mesoendemic-malaria transmission. In the two study areas that were < 1 km in size, we observed evidence for spatial clustering of densities or malaria parasite carriage during the dry season. density and malaria prevalence appeared associated in some of our detected hotspots. However, many households with high parasite prevalence or high densities were located outside the identified hotspots. Our findings indicate that within small villages exposed to low- or mesoendemic-malaria transmission, spatial patterns in mosquito densities and parasite carriage are best detected in the dry season. Considering the high prevalence of parasite carriage outside detected hotspots, the suitability of the area for targeting control efforts to households or areas of more intense malaria transmission may be limited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0765
2015-10-07
2017-09-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/93/4/790.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0765&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bousema T, Drakeley C, Gesase S, Hashim R, Magesa S, Mosha F, Otieno S, Carneiro I, Cox J, Msuya E, Kleinschmidt I, Maxwell C, Greenwood B, Riley E, Sauerwein R, Chandramohan D, Gosling R, , 2010. Identification of hot spots of malaria transmission for targeted malaria control. J Infect Dis 201: 17641774.
  2. Bejon P, Williams TN, Liljander A, Noor AM, Wambua J, Ogada E, Olotu A, Osier FHA, Hay SI, Färnert A, Marsh K, , 2010. Stable and unstable malaria hotspots in longitudinal cohort studies in Kenya. PLoS Med 7: e1000304.
  3. Bejon P, Williams TN, Nyundo C, Hay SI, Benz D, Gething PW, Otiende M, Peshu J, Bashraheil M, Greenhouse B, Bousema T, Bauni E, Marsh K, Smith DL, Borrmann S, , 2014. A micro-epidemiological analysis of febrile malaria in Coastal Kenya showing hotspots within hotspots. eLife 3: e02130.
  4. Carter R, Mendis KN, Roberts D, , 2000. Spatial targeting of interventions against malaria. Bull World Health Organ 78: 14011411.
  5. Clark TD, Greenhouse B, Njama-Meya D, Nzarubara B, Maiteki-Sebuguzi C, Staedke SG, Seto E, Kamya MR, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, , 2008. Factors determining the heterogeneity of malaria incidence in children in Kampala, Uganda. J Infect Dis 198: 393400.
  6. Bousema T, Griffin JT, Sauerwein RW, Smith DL, Churcher TS, Takken W, Ghani A, Drakeley C, Gosling R, , 2012. Hitting hotspots: spatial targeting of malaria for control and elimination. PLoS Med 9: e1001165.
  7. Mackinnon MJ, Mwangi TW, Snow RW, Marsh K, Williams TN, , 2005. Heritability of malaria in Africa. PLoS Med 2: e340.
  8. Oesterholt MJAM, Bousema JT, Mwerinde OK, Harris C, Lushino P, Masokoto A, Mwerinde H, Mosha FW, Drakeley CJ, , 2006. Spatial and temporal variation in malaria transmission in a low endemicity area in northern Tanzania. Malar J 5: 98.
  9. Kreuels B, Kobbe R, Adjei S, Kreuzberg C, von Reden C, Bäter K, Klug S, Busch W, Adjei O, May J, , 2008. Spatial variation of malaria incidence in young children from a geographically homogeneous area with high endemicity. J Infect Dis 197: 8593.
  10. Smith DL, McKenzie FE, Snow RW, Hay SI, , 2007. Revisiting the basic reproductive number for malaria and its implications for malaria control. PLoS Biol 5: e42.
  11. Machault V, Gadiaga L, Vignolles C, Jarjaval F, Bouzid S, Sokhna C, Lacaux J-P, Trape J-F, Rogier C, Pagès F, , 2009. Highly focused anopheline breeding sites and malaria transmission in Dakar. Malar J 8: 138.
  12. Matthys B, Vounatsou P, Raso G, Tschannen AB, Becket EG, Gosoniu L, Cissé G, Tanner M, N'goran EK, Utzinger J, , 2006. Urban farming and malaria risk factors in a medium-sized town in Cote d'Ivoire. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 12231231.
  13. Gaudart J, Poudiougou B, Dicko A, Ranque S, Toure O, Sagara I, Diallo M, Diawara S, Ouattara A, Diakite M, Doumbo OK, , 2006. Space-time clustering of childhood malaria at the household level: a dynamic cohort in a Mali village. BMC Public Health 6: 286.
  14. Fegan GW, Noor AM, Akhwale WS, Cousens S, Snow RW, , 2007. Effect of expanded insecticide-treated bednet coverage on child survival in rural Kenya: a longitudinal study. Lancet 370: 10351039.
  15. Woolhouse ME, Dye C, Etard JF, Smith T, Charlwood JD, Garnett GP, Hagan P, Hii JL, Ndhlovu PD, Quinnell RJ, Watts CH, Chandiwana SK, Anderson RM, , 1997. Heterogeneities in the transmission of infectious agents: implications for the design of control programs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 338342.
  16. Coulibaly D, Rebaudet S, Travassos M, Tolo Y, Laurens M, Kone AK, Traore K, Guindo A, Diarra I, Niangaly A, Daou M, Dembele A, Sissoko M, Kouriba B, Dessay N, Gaudart J, Piarroux R, Thera MA, Plowe CV, Doumbo OK, , 2013. Spatio-temporal analysis of malaria within a transmission season in Bandiagara, Mali. Malar J 12: 82.
  17. Dicko A, Sagara I, Diemert D, Sogoba M, Niambele MB, Dao A, Dolo G, Yalcouye D, Diallo DA, Saul A, Miller LH, Toure YT, Klion AD, Doumbo OK, , 2007. Year-to-year variation in the age-specific incidence of clinical malaria in two potential vaccine testing sites in Mali with different levels of malaria transmission intensity. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 10281033.
  18. Majambere S, Fillinger U, Sayer DR, Green C, Lindsay SW, , 2008. Spatial distribution of mosquito larvae and the potential for targeted larval control in the Gambia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 79: 1927.
  19. Mosha JF, Sturrock HJW, Greenwood B, Sutherland CJ, Gadalla NB, Atwal S, Hemelaar S, Brown JM, Drakeley C, Kibiki G, Bousema T, Chandramohan D, Gosling RD, , 2014. Hot spot or not: a comparison of spatial statistical methods to predict prospective malaria infections. Malar J 13: 53.
  20. SaTScan - Software for the spatial, temporal, and space-time scan statistics, 2014. Available at: http://www.satscan.org/. Accessed November 23, 2014.
  21. Coulibaly D, Travassos MA, Kone AK, Tolo Y, Laurens MB, Traore K, Diarra I, Niangaly A, Daou M, Dembele A, Sissoko M, Guindo B, Douyon R, Guindo A, Kouriba B, Sissoko MS, Sagara I, Plowe CV, Doumbo OK, Thera MA, , 2014. Stable malaria incidence despite scaling up control strategies in a malaria vaccine-testing site in Mali. Malar J 13: 374.
  22. Trape JF, Lefebvre-Zante E, Legros F, Ndiaye G, Bouganali H, Druilhe P, Salem G, , 1992. Vector density gradients and the epidemiology of urban malaria in Dakar, Senegal. Am J Trop Med Hyg 47: 181189.
  23. Animut A, Balkew M, Lindtjørn B, , 2013. Impact of housing condition on indoor-biting and indoor-resting Anopheles arabiensis density in a highland area, central Ethiopia. Malar J 12: 393.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0765
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0765
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

Supplementary Tables

  • Received : 01 Dec 2014
  • Accepted : 08 Apr 2015

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error