Volume 92, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



We evaluated two novel, portable microscopes and locally acquired, single-ply, paper towels as filter paper for the diagnosis of infection. The mobile phone-mounted Foldscope and reversed-lens CellScope had sensitivities of 55.9% and 67.6%, and specificities of 93.3% and 100.0%, respectively, compared with conventional light microscopy for diagnosing infection. With conventional light microscopy, urine filtration using single-ply paper towels as filter paper showed a sensitivity of 67.6% and specificity of 80.0% compared with centrifugation for the diagnosis of infection. With future improvements to diagnostic sensitivity, newer generation handheld and mobile phone microscopes may be valuable tools for global health applications.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Petti CA, Polage CR, Quinn TC, Ronald AR, Sande MA, , 2006. Laboratory medicine in Africa: a barrier to effective health care. Clin Infect Dis 42: 377382.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Bethony J, Brooker S, Albonico M, Geiger SM, Loukas A, Diemert D, Hotez PJ, , 2006. Soil-transmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. Lancet 367: 15211532.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Hotez PJ, Brindley PJ, Bethony JM, King CH, Pearce EJ, Jacobson J, , 2008. Helminth infections: the great neglected tropical diseases. J Clin Invest 118: 13111321.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Stothard JR, Kabatereine NB, Tukahebwa EM, Kazibwe F, Mathieson W, Webster JP, Fenwick A, , 2005. Field evaluation of the Meade Readiview handheld microscope for diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis in Ugandan school children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 949955. [Google Scholar]
  5. Stothard JR, Nabatte B, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Kabatereine NB, , 2014. Towards malaria microscopy at the point-of-contact: an assessment of the diagnostic performance of the Newton Nm1 microscope in Uganda. Parasitology 141: 17. [Google Scholar]
  6. Bogoch II, Andrews JR, Speich B, Ame SM, Ali SM, Stothard JR, Utzinger J, Keiser J, , 2014. Quantitative evaluation of a handheld light microscope for field diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 91: 11381141.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Bogoch II, Andrews JR, Speich B, Utzinger J, Ame SM, Ali SM, Keiser J, , 2013. Mobile phone microscopy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections: a proof-of-concept study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 88: 626629.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Bogoch II, Coulibaly JT, Andrews JR, Speich B, Keiser J, Stothard JR, N'Goran EK, Utzinger J, , 2014. Evaluation of portable microscopic devices for the diagnosis of Schistosoma and soil-transmitted helminth infection. Parasitology 141: 18.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Ephraim RK, Duah E, Andrews JR, Bogoch II, , 2014. Ultra-low-cost urine filtration for Schistosoma haematobium diagnosis: a proof-of-concept study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 91: 544546.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Weber MD, Blair DM, Clark VV, , 1967. The pattern of schistosome egg distribution in a micturition flow. Cent Afr J Med 13: 7588. [Google Scholar]
  11. Cybulski JS, Clements J, Prakash M, , 2014. Foldscope: origami-based paper microscope. PLoS ONE 9: e98781.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Switz NA, D'Ambrosio MV, Fletcher DA, , 2014. Low-cost mobile phone microscopy with a reversed mobile phone camera lens. PLoS ONE 9: e95330.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Breslauer DN, Maamari RN, Switz NA, Lam WA, Fletcher DA, , 2009. Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications. PLoS ONE 4: e6320.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Skandarajah A, Reber CD, Switz NA, Fletcher DA, , 2014. Quantitative imaging with a mobile phone microscope. PLoS ONE 9: e96906.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. WHO Expert Committee, 2002. Prevention and control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. World Health Organ Tech Rev Ser 912: i–vi, 157. [Google Scholar]
  16. Smith ZJ, Chu K, Espenson AR, Rahimzadeh M, Gryshuk A, Molinaro M, Dwyre DM, Lane S, Matthews D, Wachsmann-Hogiu S, , 2011. Cell-phone-based platform for biomedical device development and education applications. PLoS ONE 6: e17150.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Gyorkos TW, Ramsan M, Foum A, Khamis IS, , 2001. Efficacy of new low-cost filtration device for recovering Schistosoma haematobium eggs from urine. J Clin Microbiol 39: 26812682.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Linder E, Grote A, Varjo S, Linder N, Lebbad M, Lundin M, Diwan V, Hannuksela J, Lundin J, , 2013. On-chip imaging of Schistosoma haematobium eggs in urine for diagnosis by computer vision. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2547.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 22 Nov 2014
  • Accepted : 21 Jan 2015
  • Published online : 03 Jun 2015

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error