Volume 93, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



We investigated the circulating plasma levels of Th1- (Interleukin-2 [IL-2], tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interferon-gamma [IFN-γ]) and Th2-type (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10) cytokines in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women living in a malaria-endemic area. We analyzed samples from 200 pregnant women included in the prevention of pregnancy-associated malaria in HIV-infected women: cotrimoxazole prophylaxis versus mefloquine (PACOME) clinical trial who were followed until delivery. Cytokine concentrations were measured by flow cytometry-based multiplex bead array. Significantly elevated levels of IL-10 and lower levels of TNF-α were observed at delivery compared with inclusion ( = 0.005). At inclusion, the presence of circulating IFN-γ, a higher CD4 T cell count and having initiated intermittent preventive treatment of malaria with sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (SP-IPTp) were all associated with a lower likelihood of infection. At delivery, the inverse relationship between the presence of infection and circulating IFN-γ persisted, although there was a positive association between the likelihood of infection and the presence of circulating TNF-α. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy was associated with elevated IL-5 production. Consistent with our own and others' observations in HIV seronegative subjects, this study shows circulating IL-10 to be a marker of infection with during pregnancy even in HIV-infected women, although plasma IFN-γ may be a marker of anti-malarial protection in such women.


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  • Received : 18 Oct 2014
  • Accepted : 20 Jan 2015
  • Published online : 05 Aug 2015

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