1921
Volume 92, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

We evaluated the performance of a point-of-contact circulating cathodic antigen assay (POC-CCA) to detect schistosome infections in primary school children ( = 1,801) living in areas with low, moderate, and high prevalence in western Kenya. The commercially available assay (CCA-1) and a second, experimental formulation (CCA-2) were compared against Kato-Katz stool examinations and an anti-schistosome enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A latent class model based on the four tests was used to establish “true infection status” in three different zones based on their distance from Lake Victoria. As a screening tool for community treatment according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, the Kato-Katz examination was in closest agreement with the latent class model, followed by the experimental CCA-2, soluble adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) ELISA, and CCA-1, which had high sensitivity compared with the other tests but was consistently the least specific. Our experience suggests that POC-CCA tests offer a field-friendly alternative to Kato-Katz, but need further interpretation for appropriate field use.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0643
2015-06-03
2020-07-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/92/6/1227.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0643&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Fenwick A, Webster JP, Bosque-Oliva E, Blair L, Fleming FM, Zhang Y, Stothard JR, Gabrielli AF, Clements ACA, Kabatereine NB, Toure S, Dembele R, Nyandindi U, Mwansa J, Koukounari A, 2009. The Schistosomiasis Control Initiative (SCI): rationale, development and implementation from 2002–2008. Parasitology 136: 17191730.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Barreto ML, Silva JT, Mott KE, Lehman JS Jr, 1978. Stability of faecal egg excretion in Schistosoma mansoni infection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 103: 347354.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Utzinger J, N'Goran EK, Caffrey CR, Keiser J, 2010. From innovation to application: social-ecological context, diagnostics, drugs and integrated control of schistosomiasis. Acta Trop 2558: S121S137.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Stothard JR, 2009. Improving control of African schistosomiasis: towards effective use of rapid diagnostic tests within an appropriate disease surveillance model. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 103: 325332.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Katz N, Chaves A, Pellegrino J, 1972. A simple device for quantitative stool thick-smear technique in schistosomiasis mansoni. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 14: 397400.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Shane HL, Verani JR, Abudho B, Montgomery SP, Blackstock AJ, Mwinzi PNM, Butler SE, Karanja DMS, Secor WE, 2011. Evaluation of urine CCA assays for detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in western Kenya. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e951.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Teesdale CH, Fahringer K, Chitsulo L, 1985. Egg count variability and sensitivity of a thin smear technique for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni . Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 79: 369373.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Kongs A, Marks G, Verle P, van der Stuyft P, 2001. The unreliability of the Kato-Katz technique limits its usefulness for evaluating S. mansoni infections. Trop Med Int Health 6: 163169.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Engels D, Sinzinkayo E, Gryseels B, 1996. Day-to-day egg count fluctuation in Schistosoma mansoni infection and its operational implications. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57: 571577.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Doenhoff MJ, Chiodini PL, Hamilton JV, 2004. Specific and sensitive diagnosis of schistosome infection: can it be done? Trends Parasitol 20: 3539.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. van Dam GJ, Wichers JH, Falcao Feirreira TM, Ghati D, van Amerongen A, Deelder AM, 2004. Diagnosis of schistosomiasis by reagent strip test for detection of circulating cathodic antigen. J Clin Microbiol 42: 54585461.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Coulibaly JT, Knopp S, N'Guessan NA, Silué KD, Fürst T, Lohourignon LK, Brou JK, N'Gbesso YK, Vounatsou P, N'Goran EK, Utzinger J, 2011. Accuracy of urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) test for Schistosoma mansoni diagnosis in different settings of Côte d'Ivoire. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1384.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Tchuem Tchuenté LA, Kueté Fouodo CJ, Kamwa Ngassam RI, Sumo L, Dongmo Noumedem C, Kenfack CM, Gipwe NF, Nana ED, Stothard JR, Rollinson D, 2012. Evaluation of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine-tests for diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Cameroon. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1758.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Navaratnam AM, Mutumba-Nakalembe MJ, Stothard JR, Kabatereine NB, Fenwick A, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, 2012. Notes on the use of urine-CCA dipsticks for detection of intestinal schistosomiasis in preschool children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 106: 619622.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Colley DG, Binder S, Campbell C, King CH, Tchuem Tchuenté LA, N'Goran EK, Erko B, Karanja DM, Kabatereine NB, van Lieshout L, Rathbun S, 2013. A five-country evaluation of a point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen urine assay for the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni . Am J Trop Med Hyg 88: 426432.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Erko B, Medhin G, Teklehaymanot T, Begarege A, Legesse M, 2013. Evaluation of urine-circulating cathodic antigen (Urine-CCA) cassette test for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in areas of moderate prevalence in Ethiopia. Trop Med Int Health 18: 10291035.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Adriko M, Standley CJ, Tinkitina B, Tukahebwa EM, Fenwick A, Fleming FM, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Stothard JR, Kabatereine NB, 2014. Evaluation of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine-cassette assay as a survey tool for Schistosoma mansoni in different transmission settings within Bugiri District, Uganda. Acta Trop 136: 5057.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Carabin H, Balolong E, Joseph L, McGarvey ST, Johansen MV, Fernandez T, Willingham AL, Olveda R, 2005. Estimating sensitivity and specificity of a faecal examination method for Schistosoma japonicum infection in cats, dogs, water buffaloes, pigs, and rats in western Samar and Sorsogon Provinces, the Philippines. Int J Parasitol 35: 15171524.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Koukounari A, Webster JP, Donnelly CA, Bray BC, Naples J, Bosompem K, Shiff C, 2009. Sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests and infection prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium estimated from data on adults in villages northwest of Accra, Ghana. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80: 435441.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Tarafder MR, Carabin H, Joseph L, Balolong E Jr, Olveda R, McGarvey ST, 2010. Estimating the sensitivity and specificity of Kato-Katz stool examination technique for detection of hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections in humans in the absence of a ‘gold standard.’ Int J Parasitol 40: 399404.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. World Health Organization, 2006. Preventive Chemotherapy in Human Helminthiasis: Coordinated Use of Anthelminthic Drugs in Control Interventions: A Manual for Health Professionals and Program Managers. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Handzel T, Karanja DMS, Addiss DG, Hightower AW, Rosen DH, Colley DG, Andove J, Slutsker L, Secor WE, 2003. Geographic distribution of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths in western Kenya: implications for anthelminthic mass treatment. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69: 318323.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Bai J, Perron P, 2003. Computation and analysis of multiple structural change models. J Appl Econ 18: 122.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Dendukuri N, Hadgu A, Wang L, 2009. Modeling conditional dependence between diagnostic tests: a multiple latent variable model. Stat Med 28: 442461.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Bartko JJ, 1966. The intraclass correlation coefficient as a measure of reliability. Psychol Rep 19: 311.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Fleiss JL, Levin B, Paik MC, 2003. Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions, 3rd Ed. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Landis JR, Koch GG, 1977. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics 33: 159174.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Standley CJ, Lwambo NJS, Lange CN, Kariuki HC, Adriko M, Stothard J, 2010. Performance of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine-dipsticks for rapid detection of intestinal schistosomiasis in schoolchildren from shoreline communities of Lake Victoria. Parasit Vectors 3: 7.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Standley CJ, Adriko M, Arinaitwe M, Atuhaire A, Kazibwe F, Fenwick A, Kabatereine NB, Stothard JR, 2010. Epidemiology and control of intestinal schistosomiasis on the Sesse Islands, Uganda: integrating malacology and parasitology to tailor local treatment recommendations. Parasit Vectors 3: 64.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Betson M, Kabatereine NB, Stothard JR, 2013. The urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) dipstick: a valid substitute for microscopy for mapping and point-of-care diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2008.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Coulibaly JT, N'Gbesso YK, Knopp S, N'Guessan NA, Silué KD, van Dam GJ, N'Goran EK, Utzinger J, 2013. Accuracy of urine circulating cathodic antigen test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after treatment. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2109.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Worrell CM, Bartoces M, Karanja DMS, Ochola EA, Matete DO, Mwinzi PNM, Montgomery SP, Secor WE, 2015. Cost analysis of tests for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in children in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 92: 12331239.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0643
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0643
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 15 Oct 2014
  • Accepted : 11 Mar 2015
  • Published online : 03 Jun 2015
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error