Volume 93, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Clinical and epidemiological data from Central Africa on influenza A and parvovirus B19 infections are limited. We analyzed 162 blood samples of infants 3, 9, 15, and 30 months of age for IgG antibodies against both pathogens. Antibody responses were 0, 3.7%, 12.3%, and 20.4% against influenza A; and 1.2%, 2.5%, 3.1%, and 9.3% against parvovirus B19, respectively. Seropositivity rates were 89.5 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 59–120.1) and 38.2 (95% CI: 18.9–57.6)/1,000 person-years at risk for influenza A and parvovirus B19, respectively. Our data add to the understanding of the epidemiology of both conditions.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Nair H, Brooks WA, Katz M, Roca A, Berkley JA, Madhi SA, Simmerman JM, Gordon A, Sato M, Howie S, Krishnan A, Ope M., Lindblade KA, Carosone-Link P, Lucero M, Ochieng W, Kamimoto L, Dueger E, Bhat N, Vong S, Theodoratou E, Chittaganpitch M, Chimah O, Balmaseda A, Buchy P, Harris E, Evans V, Katayose M, Gaur B, O'Callaghan-Gordo C, Goswami D, Arvelo W, Venter M, Briese T, Tokarz R, Widdowson MA, Mounts AW, Breiman RF, Feikin DR, Klugman KP, Olsen SJ, Gessner BD, Wright PF, Rudan I, Broor S, Simões EA, Campbell H, , 2011. Global burden of respiratory infections due to seasonal influenza in young children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 378: 19171930.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Gessner BD, Shindo N, Briand S, , 2011. Seasonal influenza epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis 11: 223235.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Katz MA, Schoub BD, Heraud JM, Breiman RF, Njenga MK, Widdowson MA, , 2012. Influenza in Africa: uncovering the epidemiology of a long-overlooked disease. J Infect Dis 206 (Suppl 1): S1S4.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Njouom R, Mba SA, Noah DN, Gregory V, Collins P, Cappy P, Hay A, Rousset D, , 2010. Circulation of human influenza viruses and emergence of oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1) viruses in Cameroon. BMC Infect Dis 10: 56.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. van Riet E, Adegnika AA, Retra K, Vieira R, Tielens AG, Lell B, Issifou S, Hartgers FC, Rimmelzwaan GF, Kresmner PG, Yazdanbakhsh M, , 2007. Cellular and humoral responses to influenza in Gabonese children living in rural and semi-rural areas. J Infect Dis 196: 16711678.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Sharp CP, LeBreton M, Kantola K, Nana A, Diffo Jle D, Djoko CF, Tamoufe U, Kiyang JA, Babila TG, Ngole EM, Pybus OG, Delwart E, Delaporte E, Peeters M, Soderlund-Venermo M, Hedman K, Wolfe ND, Simmonds P, , 2010. Widespread infection with homologues of human parvoviruses B19, PARV4, a human bocavirus of chimpanzees and gorillas in the wild. J Virol 84: 1028910296.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Sharp CP, Vermeulen M, Nébié Y, Djoko CF, LeBreton M, Tamoufe U, Rimoin AW, Kayembe PK, Carr JK, Servant-Delmas A, Laperche S, Harrison GL, Pybus OG, Delwart E, Wolfe ND, Saville A, Lefrère JJ, Simmonds P, , 2010. Changing epidemiology of human parvovirus 4 infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 16051607.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Heegaard ED, Brown KE, , 2002. Human parvovirus B19. Clin Microbiol Rev 15: 485505.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Wildig J, Michon P, Siba P, Mellombo M, Ura A, Mueller I, Cossart Y, , 2006. Parvovirus B19 infection contributes to severe anemia in young children in Papua New Guinea. J Infect Dis 194: 146153.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Abkowitz JL, Brown KE, Wood RW, Kovach NL, Green SW, Young NS, , 1997. Clinical relevance of parvovirus B19 as a cause of anemia in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis 176: 269273.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Toan NL, Sy BT, Song LH, Luong HV, Binh NT, Binh VQ, Kandolf R, Velavan TP, Kremsner PG, , 2013. Co-infection of human parvovirus B19 with Plasmodium falciparum contributes to malaria disease severity in Gabonese patients. BMC Infect Dis 13: 375.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Grobusch MP, Lell B, Schwarz N, Gabor J, Dornemann J, Potschke M, Oyakhirome S, Kiessling GC, Necek M, Langin MU, Klein Klouwenberg P, Klopfer A, Naumann B, Altun H, Agnandji ST, Goesch J, Decker M, Salazar CL, Supan C, Kombila DU, Borchert L, Koster KB, Pongratz P, Adegnika AA, Glasenapp I, Issifou S, Kremsner PG, , 2007. Intermittent preventive treatment in infants of malaria in Gabon: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Infect Dis 196: 15951605.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Grobusch MP, Gabor JJ, Aponte JJ, Schwarz NG, Poetschke M, Doernemann J, Schuster K, Koester KB, Profanter K, Borchert LB, Kurth F, Pongratz P, Issifou S, Lell B, Kremsner PG, , 2009. No rebound of morbidity following intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Gabon. J Infect Dis 200: 16581661.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Bueving HJ, van der Wouden JC, Berger MY, Thomas S, , 2005. Incidence of influenza and associated illness in children aged 0–19 years: a systematic review. Rev Med Virol 15: 383391.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Mihigo R, Vivas Torrealba C, Coninx K, Nshirimana D, Kieny MP, Carrasco P, Hedman L, Widdowson MA, , 2012. 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 vaccination in Africa – successes and challenges. J Infect Dis 206 (Suppl 1): S22S28.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 04 Sep 2014
  • Accepted : 19 Dec 2014
  • Published online : 05 Aug 2015

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error