Volume 92, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



The increasing intensification of pork production in southeast Asia necessitates an urgent requirement to better understand the dual impact of pig-associated zoonotic disease on both pig production and human health in the region. Sharing porous borders with five countries and representing many regional ethnicities and agricultural practices, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) appears well placed to gauge the levels of pig-associated zoonoses circulating in the wider region. Despite this, little is known about the true impact of zoonotic pathogens such as leptospirosis, , hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis (JE), and on human health and livestock production in the country. A comprehensive review of the published prevalences of these five pig-associated zoonoses in Lao PDR has demonstrated that although suspicion remains high of their existence in pig reservoirs across the country, epidemiological data are scarce; only 31 epidemiological studies have been undertaken on these diseases in the past 25 years. A greater understanding of the zoonoses prevalence and subsequent risks associated with pork production in the southeast Asian region could help focus public health and food safety interventions at key points along the value chain, benefiting both livestock producers and the broader animal and human health systems in the region.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Delgado C, Rosegrant M, Steinfeld H, Ehui S, Courbois C, , 1999. Live Stock to 2020: The Next Food Revolution. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.
  2. Gibbs EPJ, , 2005. Animal and human health: emerging zoonotic epidemics in the interconnected global community. Vet Rec 157: 673679.[Crossref]
  3. Jones BA, Grace D, Kock R, Alonso S, Rushton J, Said MY, McKeever D, Mutua F, Young J, McDermott J, Pfeiffer DU, , 2013. Zoonosis emergence linked to agricultural intensification and environmental change. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110: 839983404.[Crossref]
  4. Costales A, , 2007. Pig Systems, Livelihoods and Poverty in South-East Asia: Current Status, Emerging Issues, and Ways Forward. Research Report RR Nr. 07-03, 2324.
  5. Choudhury AAK, Conlan JV, Racloz VN, Reid SA, Blacksell SD, Fenwick SG, Thompson ARC, Khamlome B, Vongxay K, Whittaker M, , 2013. The economic impact of pig-associated parasitic zoonosis in northern Lao PDR. EcoHealth 10: 5462.[Crossref]
  6. WHO-WPRO, 2011. LAO PDR Country Health Information Profile. Manila, Philippines: WHO-WPRO, 174179.
  7. WHO and Lao PDR Ministry of Health, 2012. Lao PDR Health Service Delivery Profile. Manila, Philippines: WHO and Lao PDR Ministry of Health, 111. Available at: http://www.wpro.who.int/health_services/service_delivery_profile_laopdr.pdf. Accessed February 21, 2015.
  8. Millar J, Photakoun V, , 2008. Livestock development and poverty alleviation: revolution or evolution for upland livelihoods in Lao PDR? Int J Agric Sustain 6: 89102.[Crossref]
  9. Conlan J, Khounsy S, Inthavong P, Fenwick S, Blacksell S, Thompson RCA, , 2008. A review of taeniasis and cysticercosis in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Parasit Int 57: 252255.[Crossref]
  10. FAO, 2005. Lao PDR Livestock Sector Brief. Rome, Italy: FAO Livestock Information, Sector Analysis and Policy Branch, Animal Production and Health Division, 121.
  11. Stur W, Gray D, Bastin G, , 2002. Review of the Livestock Sector in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Manila, Philippines: International Livestock Research Institute, 150.
  12. Conlan JV, Sripa B, Attwood S, Newton PN, , 2011. A review of parasitic zoonoses in a changing southeast Asia. Vet Parasit 182: 2240.[Crossref]
  13. Vke L, , 2011. Leptospirosis: a re-emerging infection. Malay J Path 33: 15.
  14. Tilahun Z, Reta D, Simenew K, , 2013. Global epidemiological overview of leptospirosis. Int J Micro Res 4: 915.
  15. Syhavong B, Rasachack B, Smythe L, Rolain J-M, Roque-Afonso A-M, Jenjaroen K, Soukkhaserm V, Phongmany S, Phetsouvanh R, Soukkhaserm S, Thammavong T, Mayxay M, Blacksell SD, Barnes E, Parola P, Dussaix E, Raoult D, Humphreys I, Klenerman P, White NJ, Newton PN, , 2010. The infective causes of hepatitis and jaundice amongst hospitalised patients in Vientiane, Laos. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 104: 475483.[Crossref]
  16. Laras K, Van Cao B, Bounlu K, Nguyen TKT, Olson JG, Thongchanh S, Tran NVA, Hoang KL, Punjabi N, Ha BK, Ung SA, Insisiengmay S, Watts DM, Beecham HJ, Corwin AL, , 2002. The importance of leptospirosis in southeast Asia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67: 278286.
  17. Bounlu K, Insisiengmay S, Vanthanouvong K, Saykham Widjaja S, Iinuma K, Matsubayashi K, Laras K, Putri MP, Endy TP, Vaughn DW, Raengsakulrach B, Hyams KC, Hayden M, Scheffel C, Corwin AL, , 1998. Acute jaundice in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic. Clin Infect Dis 27: 717721.[Crossref]
  18. Mayxay M, Castonguay-Vanier J, Chansamouth V, Dubot-Pérès A, Paris DH, Phetsouvanh R, Tangkhabuanbutra J, Douangdala P, Inthalath S, Souvannasing P, Slesak G, Tongyoo N, Chanthongthip A, Panyanouvong P, Sibounheuang B, Phommasone K, Dohnt M, Phonekeo D, Hongvanthong B, Xayadeth S, Ketmayoon P, Blacksell SD, Moore CE, Craig SB, Burns M-A, von Sonnenburg F, Corwin A, de Lamballerie X, González IJ, Christophel EM, Cawthorne A, Bell D, Newton PN, , 2013. Causes of non-malarial fever in Laos: a prospective study. Lancet Global Health 1: e46e54.[Crossref]
  19. Kawaguchi L, Sengkeopraseuth B, Tsuyuoka R, Koizumi N, Akashi H, Vongphrachanh P, Watanabe H, Aoyama A, , 2008. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis and risk factor analysis in flood-prone rural areas in Lao PDR. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78: 957961.
  20. Michel V, Branger C, Andre-Fontaine G, , 2002. Epidemiology of leptospirosis. Rev Cubana Med Trop 54: 710.
  21. Vongxay K, Conlan JV, Khounsy S, Dorny P, Fenwick S, Thompson RCA, Blacksell SD, , 2012. Seroprevalence of major bovine-associated zoonotic infectious diseases in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 12: 861866.[Crossref]
  22. Niwetpathomwat A, Luengyosluechakul S, Geawduanglek S, , 2006. A serological investigation of leptospirosis in sows from central Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 37: 716719.
  23. Boqvist S, Ho Thi VT, Magnusson U, , 2005. Annual variations in Leptospira seroprevalence among sows in southern Vietnam. Trop Anim Health Prod 37: 443449.[Crossref]
  24. Boqvist S, Montgomery J, Hurst M, Thu HTV, Engvall EO, Gunnarsson A, Magnusson U, , 2003. Leptospira in slaughtered fattening pigs in southern Vietnam: presence of the bacteria in the kidneys and association with morphological findings. Vet Microbiol 93: 361368.[Crossref]
  25. Boqvist S, Chau BL, Gunnarsson A, Olsson Engvall E, Vågsholm I, Magnusson U, , 2002. Animal- and herd-level risk factors for leptospiral seropositivity among sows in the Mekong delta, Vietnam. Prev Vet Med 53: 233245.[Crossref]
  26. Ellis WA, Straw BE, D'Allaire S, Mengeling WI, Taylor DJ, , 1999. Leptospirosis. , eds. Diseases of Swine. 8th ed. Ames, IA: The Iowa State University Press, 483493.
  27. Boqvist S, Thu H, Vågsholm I, Magnusson U, , 2002. The impact of Leptospira seropositivity on reproductive performance in sows in southern Viet Nam. Theriogen 58: 13271335.[Crossref]
  28. Dupouy-Camet J, , 2000. Trichinellosis: a worldwide zoonosis. Vet Parasitol 93: 191200.[Crossref]
  29. Pozio E, Hoberg E, La Rosa G, Zarlenga DS, , 2009. Molecular taxonomy, phylogeny and biogeography of nematodes belonging to the Trichinella genus. Infect Genet Evol 9: 606616.[Crossref]
  30. Pozio E, , 2007. World distribution of Trichinella spp. infections in animals and humans. Vet Parasitol 149: 321.[Crossref]
  31. Sayasone S, Odermatt P, Vongphrachanh P, Keoluangkot V, Dupouy-Camet J, Newton PN, Strobel M, , 2006. A trichinellosis outbreak in Borikhamxay Province, Lao PDR. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100: 11261129.[Crossref]
  32. Liu M, Boireau P, , 2002. Trichinellosis in China: epidemiology and control. Trends Parasitol 18: 553556.[Crossref]
  33. Taybouavone T, Hai TN, Odermatt P, Keoluangkhot V, Delanos-Gregoire N, Dupouy-Camet J, Strobel M, Barennes H, , 2009. Trichinellosis during pregnancy: a case control study in the Lao Peoples' Democratic Republic. Vet Parasitol 159: 332336.[Crossref]
  34. Khumjui C, Choomkasien P, Dekumyoy P, Kusolsuk T, Kongkaew W, Chalamaat M, Jones JL, , 2008. Outbreak of trichinellosis caused by Trichinella papuae, Thailand, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 19131915.[Crossref]
  35. Kusolsuk T, Kamonrattanakun S, Wesanonthawech A, Dekumyoy P, Thaenkham U, Yoonuan T, Nuamtanong S, Sa-Nguankiat S, Pubampen S, Maipanich W, Panitchakit J, Marucci G, Pozio E, Waikagul J, , 2010. The second outbreak of trichinellosis caused by Trichinella papuae in Thailand. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 104: 433437.[Crossref]
  36. Wang ZQ, Cui J, Shen LJ, , 2007. The epidemiology of animal trichinellosis in China. Vet J 173: 391398.[Crossref]
  37. Pozio E, , 2000. The domestic, synanthropic and sylvatic cycles of Trichinella and the flow among them. Vet Parasitol 93: 241262.[Crossref]
  38. Takahashi Y, Mingyuan L, Waikagul J, , 2000. Epidemiology of trichinellosis in Asia and the Pacific Rim. Vet Parasitol 93: 227239. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11099839.[Crossref]
  39. Barennes H, Sayasone S, Odermatt P, De Bruyne A, Hongsakhone S, Newton PN, Vongphrachanh P, Martinez-Aussel B, Strobel M, Dupouy-Camet J, , 2008. A major trichinellosis outbreak suggesting a high endemicity of Trichinella infection in northern Laos. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78: 4044.
  40. Odermatt P, Lv S, Sayasone S, , 2010. Less common parasitic infections in southeast Asia that can produce outbreaks. Adv Parasitol 72: 409435.[Crossref]
  41. Thi NV, Do Trung D, Litzroth A, Praet N, Nguyen Thu H, Nguyen Thu H, Nguyen Manh H, Dorny P, , 2013. The hidden burden of trichinellosis in Vietnam: a postoutbreak epidemiological study. BioMed Res Int 2013: 149890. Available at: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/149890/cta/.
  42. De NV, Trung NV, Ha NH, Nga VT, Ha NM, Thuy PT, Duyet le V, Chai J-Y, , 2012. An outbreak of trichinosis with molecular identification of Trichinella sp. in Vietnam. Korean J Parasitol 50: 339343. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3514426/.[Crossref]
  43. Suwansrinon K, Wilde H, Burford B, Hanvesakul R, Sitprija V, , 2007. Human trichinellosis from Laos. J Travel Med 14: 274277.[Crossref]
  44. Erlanger TE, Sayasone S, Krieger GR, Kaul S, Sananikhom P, Tanner M, Odermatt P, Utzinger J, , 2008. Baseline health situation of communities affected by the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project in central Lao PDR and indicators for monitoring. Int J Environ Health Res 18: 223242.[Crossref]
  45. Macpherson CNL, , 2005. Human behaviour and the epidemiology of parasitic zoonoses. Int J Parasitol 35: 13191331.[Crossref]
  46. Pozio E, Murrell KD, , 2006. Systematics and epidemiology of Trichinella . Adv Parasitol 63: 367439.[Crossref]
  47. Conlan JV, Vongxay K, Khamlome B, Gomez-Morales MA, Pozio E, Blacksell SD, Fenwick S, Thompson RCA, , 2014. Patterns and risks of Trichinella infection in humans and pigs in northern laos. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e3034.[Crossref]
  48. Inthavong P, Blaszak K, Durr P, Khamlome B, Somoulay V, Allen J, Gilbert J, Holt H, Graham K, , 2012. A Participatory Ecohealth Study of Smallholder Pig System in Upland and Lowland of Lao PDR. EcoHealth Conference, October 15–18, 2012, Kunming, China. Available at: http://www.slideshare.net/ILRI/eco-health-2012-lao. Accessed January 14, 2015.
  49. Vu Thi N, Dorny P, La Rosa G, To Long T, Nguyen Van C, Pozio E, , 2010. High prevalence of anti-Trichinella IgG in domestic pigs of the Son La province, Vietnam. Vet Parasitol 168: 136140.[Crossref]
  50. Aggarwal R, Naik S, , 2009. Epidemiology of hepatitis E: current status. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 24: 14841493.[Crossref]
  51. Emerson SU, Purcell RH, , 2003. Hepatitis E virus. Rev Med Virol 13: 145154.[Crossref]
  52. Meng XJ, , 2010. Hepatitis E virus: animal reservoirs and zoonotic risk. Vet Microbiol 140: 256272.[Crossref]
  53. Cooper K, Huang FF, Batista L, Rayo CD, Bezanilla JC, Toth TE, Meng XJ, , 2005. Identification of genotype 3 hepatitis e virus (HEV) in serum and fecal samples from pigs in Thailand and Mexico, where genotype 1 and 2 hev strains are prevalent in the respective human populations. J Clin Microbiol 43: 16841688.[Crossref]
  54. Hinjoy S, Nelson KE, Gibbons RV, Jarman RG, Mongkolsirichaikul D, Smithsuwan P, Fernandez S, Labrique AB, Patchanee P, , 2012. A cross-sectional study of hepatitis e virus infection in healthy people directly exposed and unexposed to pigs in a rural community in northern Thailand. Zoonoses Public Health 60: 555562.[Crossref]
  55. Meng XJ, Wiseman B, Elvinger F, Guenette DK, Toth TE, Engle RE, Emerson SU, Purcell RH, , 2002. Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis e virus in veterinarians working with swine and in normal blood donors in the United States and other countries. J Clin Microbiol 40: 117122.[Crossref]
  56. Christou L, Kosmidou M, , 2013. Hepatitis E virus in the Western world–a pork-related zoonosis. Clin Microbiol Infect 19: 600604.[Crossref]
  57. Drobeniuc J, Favorov MO, Shapiro CN, Bell BP, Mast EE, Dadu A, Culver D, Iarovoi P, Robertson BH, Margolis HS, , 2001. Hepatitis E virus antibody prevalence among persons who work with swine. J Infect Dis 184: 15941597.[Crossref]
  58. Wibawa IDN, Muljono DH, Mulyanto Suryadarma IG, Tsuda F, Takahashi M, Nishizawa T, Okamoto H, , 2004. Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus among apparently healthy humans and pigs in Bali, Indonesia: identification of a pig infected with a genotype 4 hepatitis E virus. J Med Virol 73: 3844.[Crossref]
  59. Blacksell SD, Myint KSA, Khounsy S, Phruaravanh M, Mammen MP, Day NPJ, Newton PN, , 2007. Prevalence of hepatitis E virus antibodies in pigs: implications for human infections in village-based subsistence pig farming in the Lao PDR. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101: 305307.[Crossref]
  60. Corwin AL, Tien NTK, Bounlu K, Winarno J, Putri MP, Laras K, Larasati RP, Sukri N, Endy TP, Sulaiman HA, Hyams KC, , 1999. The unique riverine ecology of hepatitis E virus transmission in south-east Asia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 93: 255260.[Crossref]
  61. Corwin A, Putri MP, Winarno J, Lubis I, Suparmanto S, Sumardiati A, Laras K, Tan R, Master J, Warner G, Wignall FS, Graham R, Hyams KC, , 1997. Epidemic and sporadic hepatitis E virus transmission in west Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57: 6265.
  62. Labrique AB, Thomas DL, Stoszek SK, Nelson KE, , 1999. Hepatitis E: an emerging infectious disease. Epidemiol Reviews 21: 162179.[Crossref]
  63. Conlan JV, Jarman RG, Vongxay K, Chinnawirotpisan P, Melendrez MC, Fenwick S, Thompson RCA, Blacksell SD, , 2011. Hepatitis E virus is prevalent in the pig population of Lao People's Democratic Republic and evidence exists for homogeneity with Chinese Genotype 4 human isolates. J Mol Epidemiol Evol Genetics Inf Dis 11: 13061311.
  64. Conlan JV, Vongxay K, Jarman RG, Gibbons RV, Lunt RA, Fenwick S, Thompson RCA, Blacksell SD, , 2012. Serologic study of pig-associated viral zoonoses in Laos. Am J Trop Med Hyg 86: 10771084.[Crossref]
  65. Meng XJ, , 2003. Swine hepatitis E virus: cross-species infection and risk in xenotransplantation. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 278: 185216.
  66. Impoinvil DE, Baylis M, Solomon T, , 2012. Japanese encephalitis: on the one health agenda. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 365: 205247.
  67. Van den Hurk AF, Ritchie SA, Mackenzie JS, , 2009. Ecology and geographical expansion of Japanese encephalitis virus. Annu Rev Entomol 54: 1735.[Crossref]
  68. Liu W, Gibbons RV, Kari K, Clemens JD, Nisalak A, Marks F, Xu ZY, , 2010. Risk factors for Japanese encephalitis: a case-control study. Epidemiol Infect 138: 12921297.[Crossref]
  69. Hiscox A, Khammanithong P, Kaul S, Sananikhom P, Luthi R, Hill N, Brey PT, Lindsay SW, , 2013. Risk factors for mosquito house entry in the Lao PDR. PLoS ONE 8: e62769.[Crossref]
  70. Bounlu K, Tadano M, Makino Y, Arakaki S, Kanemura K, Fukunaga T, , 1992. A seroepidemiological study of dengue and Japanese encephalitis virus infections in Vientiane, Lao PDR. Jap J Trop Med Hyg 20: 149156.[Crossref]
  71. Makino Y, Saito M, Phommasack B, Vongxay P, Kanemura K, Pothawan T, Bunsou Insisiengmay S, Sompaw Fukunaga T, , 1995. Arbovirus infections in pilot areas in Laos. Trop Med 36: 131139.
  72. Vongxay P, , 1995. Epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in Lao PDR. Southeast Asia J Trop Med Pub Health 26: 2830.
  73. Vallée J, Dubot-Pérès A, Ounaphom P, Sayavong C, Bryant JE, Gonzalez J-P, , 2009. Spatial distribution and risk factors of dengue and Japanese encephalitis virus infection in urban settings: the case of Vientiane, Lao PDR. Trop Med Int Health 14: 11341142.[Crossref]
  74. Hiscox A, Winter CH, Vongphrachanh P, Sisouk T, Somoulay V, Phompida S, Kaul S, Sananikhom P, Nguyen TY, Paul RE, Brey P, Bryant JE, , 2010. Serological investigations of flavivirus prevalence in Khammouane Province, Lao People's Democratic Republic, 2007–2008. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 11661169.[Crossref]
  75. Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust Research Unit, 2013. Mahosot Microbiology Review. Issue No. 7. Vientiane, Lao PDR: LOMWRU, 1628.
  76. Ndimubanzi PC, Carabin H, Budke CM, Nguyen H, Qian Y-J, Rainwater E, Dickey M, Reynolds S, Stoner JA, , 2010. A systematic review of the frequency of neurocysticercosis with a focus on people with epilepsy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: e870.[Crossref]
  77. Mac TL, Tran D-S, Quet F, Odermatt P, Preux P-M, Tan CT, , 2007. Epidemiology, aetiology, and clinical management of epilepsy in Asia: a systematic review. Lancet Neurol 6: 533543.[Crossref]
  78. Dorny P, Somers R, Cam T, Dang T, Nguyen VK, Vercruysse J, , 2004. Cysticercosis in Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Vietnam. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 35: 223226.
  79. Tran D-S, Odermatt P, Le Oanh T, Huc P, Phoumindr N, Ito A, Druet-Cabanac M, Preux P-M, Strobel M, , 2007. Risk factors for epilepsy in rural Lao PDR: a case-control study. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 38: 537542.
  80. Azim S, Dojki F, Ahmad SS, Beg MA, , 2008. Role of human behaviour and parasitic diseases. Infect Dis J 17: 128134.
  81. Conlan JV, Vongxay K, Khamlome B, Dorny P, Sripa B, Elliot A, Blacksell SD, Fenwick S, Thompson RCA, , 2012. A cross-sectional study of Taenia solium in a multiple taeniid-endemic region reveals competition may be protective. Am J Trop Med Hyg 87: 281291.[Crossref]
  82. Conlan J, Vongxay K, Fenwick S, Blacksell S, Thompson R, , 2009. Does interspecific competition have a moderating effect on Taenia solium transmission dynamics in southeast Asia? Trends Parasitol 25: 398403.[Crossref]
  83. Sayasone S, Mak TK, Vanmany M, Rasphone O, Vounatsou P, Utzinger J, Akkhavong K, Odermatt P, , 2011. Helminth and intestinal protozoa infections, multiparasitism and risk factors in Champasack province, Lao People's Democratic Republic. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1037.[Crossref]
  84. Chai JY, Hongvanthong B, , 1998. A small-scale survey of intestinal helminthic infections among the residents near Pakse, Laos. Korean J Parasitol 36: 5558.[Crossref]
  85. Rim H-J, Chai J-Y, Min D-Y, Cho S-Y, Eom KS, Hong S-J, Sohn W-M, Yong T-S, Deodato G, Standgaard H, Phommasack B, Yun C-H, Hoang E-H, , 2003. Prevalence of intestinal parasite infections on a national scale among primary schoolchildren in Laos. Parasitol Res 91: 267272.[Crossref]
  86. Phongluxa K, Xayaseng V, Vonghachack Y, Akkhavong K, van Eeuwijk P, Odermatt P, , 2013. Helminth infection in southern Laos: high prevalence and low awareness. Parasit Vectors 6: 328.[Crossref]
  87. Chai J-Y, Park J-H, Han E-T, Guk S-M, Shin E-H, Lin A, Kim J-L, Sohn W-M, Yong T-S, Eom KS, Min D-Y, Hwang E-H, Phommmasack B, Insisiengmay B, Rim H-J, , 2005. Mixed infections with Opisthorchis viverrini and intestinal flukes in residents of Vientiane Municipality and Saravane Province in Laos. J Helminthol 79: 283289.[Crossref]
  88. Chai J-Y, Han E-T, Guk S-M, Shin E-H, Sohn W-M, Yong T-S, Eom KS, Lee K-H, Jeong H-G, Ryang Y-S, Hoang E-H, Phommasack B, Insisiengmay B, Lee S-H, Rim H-J, , 2007. High prevalence of liver and intestinal fluke infections among residents of Savannakhet Province in Laos. Korean J Parasitol 45: 213.[Crossref]
  89. Vannachone B, Kobayashi J, Nambanya S, Manivong K, Inthakone S, Sato Y, , 1998. An epidemiological survey on intestinal parasite infection in Khammouane Province, Lao PDR, with special reference to Strongyloides infection. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 29: 717722.
  90. Jeon H-K, Yong T-S, Sohn W-M, Chai J-Y, Min D-Y, Yun C-H, Rim H-J, Pongvongsa T, Banouvong V, Insisiengmay B, Phommasack B, Eom KS, , 2013. Current status of human taeniasis in Lao People's Democratic Republic. Korean J Parasitol 51: 259263.[Crossref]
  91. Okello A, Ash A, Keokhamphet C, Hobbs E, Khamlome B, Dorny P, Thomas L, Allen J, , 2014. Investigating a hyper-endemic focus of Taenia solium in northern Lao PDR. Parasit Vectors 7: 134.[Crossref]
  92. Jeon H-K, Yong T-S, Sohn W-M, Chai J-Y, Min D-Y, Rim H-J, Insisiengmay B, Eom KS, , 2013. Human neurocysticercosis case and an endemic focus of Taenia solium in Lao PDR. Korean J Parasitol 51: 599602.[Crossref]
  93. Singh G, Prabhakar S, Ito A, Cho S, Qui D, Singh G, Prabhakar S, , 2002. Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in Asia. , eds. Taenia solium Cysticercosis: From Basic to Clinical Science. New York, NY: CABI Publishing, 111127.[Crossref]
  94. García HH, Gonzalez AE, Evans CAW, Gilman RH, , 2003. Taenia solium cysticercosis. Lancet 362: 547556.[Crossref]
  95. Willingham A, III Wu H-W, Conlan J, Satrija F, , 2010. Combating Taenia solium cysticercosis in southeast Asia: an opportunity for improving human health and livestock production. Adv Parasitol 72: 235266.[Crossref]
  96. Pappas G, Papadimitriou P, Siozopoulou V, Christou L, Akritidis N, , 2008. The globalization of leptospirosis: worldwide incidence trends. Int J Infect Dis 12: 351357.[Crossref]
  97. Bordier M, Roger F, , 2013. Zoonoses in south-east Asia: a regional burden, a global threat. Anim Health Res Rev 14: 4067.[Crossref]
  98. Victoriano AFB, Smythe LD, Gloriani-Barzaga N, Cavinta LL, Kasai T, Limpakarnjanarat K, Ong BL, Gongal G, Hall J, Coulombe CA, Yanagihara Y, Yoshida S, Adler B, , 2009. Leptospirosis in the Asia Pacific region. Infect Dis 9: 147155.
  99. Myint KS, Gibbons RVR, Murray CKC, Rungsimanphaiboon K, Supornpun W, Sithiprasasna R, Gray MR, Pimgate C, Mammen MP, Hospenthal DR, , 2007. Leptospirosis in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 135138.
  100. Seng H, Sok T, Tangkanakul W, Petkanchanapong W, Kositanont U, Sareth H, , 2007. Leptospirosis in Takeo Province, Kingdom of Cambodia. J Med Assoc Thai 90: 546551.
  101. Hartskeerl R, , 2002. Report of the Leptospirosis Outbreak in Indonesia. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: WHO/FAO/OIE/RIVM Leptospirosis Reference Centre, KIT Biomedical Research.
  102. Montresor A, Palmer K, , 2006. Taeniasis/cysticercosis trend worldwide and rationale for control. Parasitol Int 55: S301S303.[Crossref]
  103. Rajshekhar V, Joshi DD, Doanh NQ, van De N, Xiaonong Z, , 2003. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in Asia: epidemiology, impact and issues. Acta Trop 87: 5360.[Crossref]
  104. Erlanger TE, Weiss S, Keiser J, Utzinger J, Wiedenmayer K, , 2009. Past, present, and future of Japanese encephalitis. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 17.[Crossref]
  105. Maudlin I, Eisler MC, Welburn SC, , 2009. Neglected and endemic zoonoses. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364: 27772787.[Crossref]

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

Supplemental file

  • Received : 01 Sep 2014
  • Accepted : 19 Jan 2015

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error