Volume 92, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Interrelationships among bacteria, protozoa, helminths, and ectoparasites were explored in a cross-sectional survey of 213 pregnant and 99 lactating indigenous women. Prevalences in pregnancy and lactation, respectively, were: vaginitis (89.2%; 46.8%), vaginal trichomoniasis (75.3%; 91.1%), bacterial vaginosis (BV; 60.6%; 63.3%), hookworm (56.6%; 47.8%), asymptomatic bacteriuria/urinary tract infection (AB/UTI; 56.2%; 36.2%), cervicitis (33.3%; 6.3%), vaginal yeast (24.9%; 11.4%), (32.5%; 17.4%), vaginal diplococci (20.4%; 31.6%), caries (19.7%; 18.2%), scabies (17.4%; 8.1%), and (12.5%; 8.7%). Multiple regressions revealed positive associations during pregnancy (trichomoniasis and AB/UTI; diplococci and ) and lactation (yeast and scabies). Negative associations were detected in pregnancy (BV and trichomoniasis; hookworm and diplococci) and lactation (BV and yeast). Vaginal reduced odds of diplococci in pregnancy and lactation, but increased eggs per gram (epg) and odds of trichomoniasis in pregnancy and yeast in lactation. These associations raised a concern that treatment of one condition may increase the risk of another.


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  • Received : 30 Aug 2014
  • Accepted : 21 Feb 2015
  • Published online : 03 Jun 2015

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