Volume 93, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



prevalence and transmission were assessed in six endemic villages in Sikasso, Mali prior to and yearly during mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole and ivermectin from 2002 to 2007. Microfilaremia was determined by calibrated thick smear of night blood in adult volunteers and circulating filarial antigen was measured using immunochromatographic card test in children < 5 years of age. Mosquitoes were collected by human landing catch from July to December. None of the 686 subjects tested were microfilaremic 12 months after the sixth MDA round. More importantly, circulating antigen was not detected in any of the 120 children tested, as compared with 53% (103/194) before the institution of MDA. The number of infective bites/human/year decreased from 4.8 in 2002 to 0.04 in 2007, and only one mosquito containing a single infective larva was observed 12 months after the final MDA round. Whether this dramatic reduction in transmission will be sustained following cessation of MDA remains to be seen.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Brengues J, , 1975. La Filariose de Brancroft en Afrique de L'Ouest. ORSTOM Paris Memoires ORSTOM No. 79, 293. [Google Scholar]
  2. Gyapong JO, Kyelem D, Kleinschmidt I, Agbo K, Ahouandogbo F, Gaba J, Owusu-Banahene G, Sanou S, Sodahlon YK, Biswas G, Kale OO, Molyneux DH, Roungou JB, Thomson MC, Remme J, , 2002. The use of spatial analysis in mapping the distribution of bancroftian filariasis in four West African countries. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96: 695705 [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Molyneux DH, Zagaria N, , 2002. Lymphatic filariasis elimination: progress in global programme development. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96 (Suppl 2): S15S40.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Ottesen EA, , 2006. Lymphatic filariasis: treatment, control and elimination. Adv Parasitol 61: 395441.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Ottesen EA, Hooper PJ, Bradley M, Biswas G, , 2008. The global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: health impact after 8 years. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e317.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Ramzy RM, El Setouhy M, Helmy H, Ahmed ES, Abd Elaziz KM, Farid HA, Shannon WD, Weil GJ, , 2006. Effect of yearly mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole on bancroftian filariasis in Egypt: a comprehensive assessment. Lancet 367: 992999.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Supali T, Djuardi Y, Bradley M, Noordin R, Rückert P, Fischer PU, , 2013. Impact of six rounds of mass drug administration on Brugian filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections in eastern Indonesia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2586.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Ramaiah KD, Vanamail P, Yuvaraj J, Das PK, , 2011. Effect of annual mass administration of diethylcarbamazine and albendazole on bancroftian filariasis in five villages in south India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 105: 431437.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Richards FO, Eigege A, Miri ES, Kal A, Umaru J, Pam D, Rakers LJ, Sambo Y, Danboyi J, Ibrahim B, Adelamo SE, Ogah G, Goshit D, Oyenekan OK, Mathieu E, Withers PC, Saka YA, Jiya J, Hopkins DR, , 2011. Epidemiological and entomological evaluations after six years or more of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination in Nigeria. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1346.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2011. Progress toward elimination of lymphatic filariasis–Togo, 2000–2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 60: 989991. [Google Scholar]
  11. Coluzzi M, Petrarca V, , 1973. Aspirator with paper cup for collecting mosquitoes and other insects. Mosq News 33: 249250. [Google Scholar]
  12. Coulibaly YI, Dembele B, Diallo AA, Kristensen S, Konate S, Dolo H, Dicko I, Sangare MB, Keita F, Boatin BA, Traore AK, Nutman TB, Klion AD, Touré YT, Traore SF, , 2013. Wuchereria bancrofti transmission pattern in southern Mali prior to and following the institution of mass drug administration. Parasit Vectors 6: 247.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Toure YT, Guimogo D, Petrarca V, Traore SF, Bouare M, Dao A, Carnahan C, Taylor C, , 1997. Mark Release recapture experiments with Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Banambani village, Mali to determine population size and structure. Med Vet Entomol 12: 7483.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Favia G, Lanfrancotti A, Spanos L, Sidén-Kiamos I, Louis C, , 1999. Molecular characterization of ribosomal DNA polymorphisms discriminating among chromosomal forms of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Annu Rev Entomol 44: 131157.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Detinova TS, Rasnitsyn SP, Markovich NIA, Kupriianova ES, Aksenova AS, , 1978. Unification of the methods of counting the number of blood-sucking dipteric insects. Med Parazitol (Mosk) 47: 8492. [Google Scholar]
  16. Appawu MA, Dadzie SK, Baffoe-Wilmot A, Wilson MD, , 2001. Lymphatic filariasis in Ghana: entomological investigation of transmission dynamics and intensity in communities served by irrigation systems in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Trop Med Int Health 6: 511516.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Southgate BA, Bryan JH, , 1992. Factors affecting transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti by anopheline mosquitoes. 4. Facilitation, limitation, proportionality and their epidemiological significance. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 86: 523530.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Pichon G, , 2002. Limitation and facilitation in the vectors and other aspects of the dynamics of filarial transmission: the need for vector control against Anopheles-transmitted filariasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96 (Suppl 2): S143S152.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. De Souza DK, Koudou B, Kelly-Hope LA, Wilson MD, Bockarie MJ, Boakye DA, , 2012. Diversity and transmission competence in lymphatic filariasis vectors in West Africa, and the implications for accelerated elimination of Anopheles-transmitted filariasis. Parasit Vectors 5: 259.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary PDF

  • Received : 13 Aug 2014
  • Accepted : 16 Feb 2015
  • Published online : 05 Aug 2015

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error