Volume 92, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Cysticercosis has become increasingly recognized as an important infection in the United States in recent decades. Despite its potential impact, there is a lack of comprehensive information on the nationwide burden of disease. To better define the burden of cysticercosis in the United States, we analyzed in-patient records using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 1998–2011 to estimate cysticercosis-related hospitalizations and patient/institutional characteristics. There were an estimated 33,060 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 29,610.5–36,510.3) cysticercosis-related hospitalizations nationwide, representing a hospitalization rate of 8.03 per million population. The highest proportion of cases were male (54.8%), Hispanic (62.0%), aged 18–44 (58.8%), and occurred in the West (45.1%). An estimated 459 deaths occurred, representing an in-hospital case-fatality rate of 1.4%. These findings indicate the burden of cysticercosis-related hospitalizations in the United States is considerable and may be greater than currently appreciated. Cysticercosis should be a nationally reportable disease.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. García HH, Gonzalez AE, Evans CA, Gilman RH, Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru; , 2003. Taenia solium cysticercosis. Lancet 362: 547556.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Wallin MT, Kurtzke JF, , 2004. Neurocysticercosis in the United States: review of an important emerging infection. Neurology 63: 15591564.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Faust EC, Russell PF, Jung RC, , 1970. Craig and Faust's Clinical Parasitology. Eighth edition. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger. [Google Scholar]
  4. Ash LR, Orihel TC, , 1995. Parasites in Human Tissues. Chicago, IL: ASCP Press, 304306. [Google Scholar]
  5. Sorvillo F, Wilkins P, Shafir S, Eberhard M, , 2011. Public health implications of cysticercosis acquired in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 17: 16.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Sorvillo FJ, Portigal L, DeGiorgio C, Smith L, Waterman SH, Berlin GW, Ash LR, , 2004. Cysticercosis-related deaths, California. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 465469.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Schantz PM, Moore AC, Munoz JL, Hartman BJ, Schaefer JA, Aron AM, Persaud D, Sarti E, Wilson M, Flisser A, , 1992. Neurocysticercosis in an Orthodox Jewish community in New York City. N Engl J Med 327: 692695.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Richards FO, Jr Schantz PM, Ruiz-Tiben E, Sorvillo FJ, , 1985. Cysticercosis in Los Angeles County. JAMA 254: 34443448.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. del la Garza Y, Graviss EA, Daver NG, Gambarin KJ, Shandera WX, Schantz PM, White AC, Jr, 2005. Epidemiology of neurocysticercosis in Houston, Texas. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 766770. [Google Scholar]
  10. Serpa JA, Graviss EA, Kass JS, White AC, Jr, 2011. Neurocysticercosis in Houston, Texas: an update. Medicine (Baltimore) 90: 8186.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Sorvillo FJ, Waterman SH, Richards FO, Schantz PM, , 1992. Cysticercosis surveillance: locally acquired and travel-related infections and detection of intestinal tapeworm carriers in Los Angeles County. Am J Trop Med Hyg 47: 365371. [Google Scholar]
  12. Croker C, Redelings M, Reporter R, Sorvillo F, Mascola L, Wilkins P, , 2012. The impact of neurocysticercosis in California: a review of hospitalized cases. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1480.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Townes JM, Hoffman CJ, Kohn MA, , 2004. Neurocysticercosis in Oregon, 1995–2000. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 508510.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. O'Neal S, Noh J, Wilkins P, Keene W, Lambert W, Anderson J, Compton Luman J, Townes J, , 2011. Taenia solium tapeworm infection, Oregon, 2006–2009. Emerg Infect Dis 17: 10301036.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Shandera WX, White AC, Jr Chen JC, Diaz P, Armstrong R, , 1994. Neurocysticercosis in Houston, Texas. A report of 112 cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 73: 3752.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Ong S, Talan DA, Moran GJ, Mower W, Newdow M, Tsang VC, Pinner RW, EMERGEncy ID NET Study Group; , 2002. Neurocysticercosis in radiographically imaged seizure patients in U.S. emergency departments. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 608.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. DeGiorgio C, Pietsch-Escueta S, Tsang V, Corral-Leyva G, Ng L, Medina MT, Astudillo S, Padilla N, Leyva P, Martinez L, Noh J, Levine M, del Villasenor R, Sorvillo F, , 2005. Sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and Taenia solium taeniasis in California, USA. Acta Neurol Scand 111: 8488.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Sorvillo FJ, DeGiorgio C, Waterman SH, , 2007. Deaths from cysticercosis in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 13: 230235.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Croker C, Reporter R, Mascola L, , 2010. Use of statewide hospital discharge data to evaluate the economic burden of neurocysticercosis in Los Angeles County (1991–2008). Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 106110.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. O'Neal SE, Townes JM, Wilkins PP, Noh JC, Lee D, Rodriguez S, Garcia HH, Stauffer WM, , 2012. Seroprevalence of antibodies against Taenia solium cysticerci among refugees resettled in United States. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 431438.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Rosenfeld EA, Byrd SE, Shulman ST, , 1996. Neurocysticercosis among children in Chicago. Clin Infect Dis 23: 262268.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Cantey PT, Coyle CM, Sorvillo FJ, Wilkins PP, Starr MC, Nash TE, , 2014. Neglected parasitic infections in the United States: cysticercosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 90: 805809.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), 2011. Overview of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Available at: http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/nisoverview.jsp. Accessed July 2013. [Google Scholar]
  24. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), 2011. Introduction to the HCUP Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) 2009. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Available at: http://www.hcupus.ahrq.gov/db/nation/nis/NIS_Introduction_2009.jsp. Accessed June 2013. [Google Scholar]
  25. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), 2002. Description of Data Elements, Nationwide Inpatient Sample Hospital Weights File. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. [Google Scholar]
  26. Barrett M, Lopez-Gonzalez L, Coffey R, Levit K, , 2013. Population Denominator Data for Use with the HCUP Databases (Updated with 2012 Population data). HCUP Methods Series Report # 2013-01 ONLINE. U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Available at: http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/methods/methods.jsp. Accessed June 2013. [Google Scholar]
  27. United States Census Bureau. Resident Population Estimates of the United States by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: April 1, 1990 to July 1, 1999, with Short-Term Projection to November 1, 2000. Available at: http://www.census.gov/popest/data/national/totals/1990s/tables/nat-srh.txt. Accessed May 2013. [Google Scholar]
  28. United States Census Bureau. National Intercensal Estimates (2000–2010). Available at: http://www.census.gov/popest/data/intercensal/national/nat2010.html. Accessed May 2013. [Google Scholar]
  29. HCUPnet. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), 1998–2011. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Available at: http://hcupnet.ahrq.gov/. Accessed September 2014. [Google Scholar]
  30. Ehnert KL, Roberto RR, Barrett L, Sorvillo FJ, Rutherford GW, III, 1992. Cysticercosis: first 12 months of reporting in California. Bull Pan Am Health Organ 26: 165172. [Google Scholar]
  31. Noskin GA, Rubin RJ, Schentag JJ, Kluytmans J, Hedblom EC, Smulders M, Lapetina E, Gemmen E, , 2005. The burden of Staphylococcus aureus infections on hospitals in the United States: an analysis of the 2000 and 2001 Nationwide Inpatient Sample Database. Arch Intern Med 165: 17561761.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  32. Del Brutto OH, García HH, , 2012. Neurocysticercosis in nonendemic countries: time for a reappraisal. Neuroepidemiology 39: 145146.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  33. Roman G, Sotelo J, Del Brutto OH, Flisser A, Dumas M, Wadia N, Botero D, Cruz M, Garcia H, de Bittencourt PR, Trelles L, Arriagada C, Lorenzana P, Nash TE, Spina-França A, , 2000. A proposal to declare neurocysticercosis an international reportable disease. Bull World Health Organ 78: 399406. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 08 Aug 2014
  • Accepted : 06 Oct 2014
  • Published online : 04 Feb 2015

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error