1921
Volume 92, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

To determine the exposure risk factors of highly endemic rural leptospirosis in tropical setting, we conducted a prospective, hospital-based case control study in Sri Lanka. A conceptual hierarchy of variables was used to analyze the data. Case patients included 38 (34%) females and 73 (66%) males with a mean age of 36 yr (SD 12.7 yr). Using piped, chlorinated water for drinking/general purposes (odds ratio [OR] 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16–0.67), paddy fields in the vicinity of home (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.06–2.97), sighting dogs at home yard/dog ownership (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.11–2.91), sighting cattle at home yard/cattle ownership (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.00–2.84), and work in a paddy field (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.68, 5.41) were the main predictors of leptospirosis among febrile patients. In high endemic tropical settings with rural leptospirosis, risk factors in residential environments, rather than individual exposures, seemed to play a major role in leptospirosis disease transmission.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0465
2015-01-07
2020-07-04
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/92/1/139.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0465&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Smythe LD, 1999. Leptospirosis worldwide. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 76: 109116.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Cachay ER, Vinetz JM, 2005. A global research agenda for leptospirosis. J Postgrad Med 51: 174178.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. World Health Organization, 2011. Report of the second meeting of leptospirosis burden epidemiology reference group. Geneva: World Health Organization, 134.
  4. Faine S, 1994. Leptospira and Leptospirosis. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 2014. Leptospira. Available at: http://www.bacterio.net/leptospira.html. Accessed August 18, 2014.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Faine S, Adler B, Bolin C, Perolat P, 1999. Leptspira and Leptospirosis. Melbourne, Australia: MediSci.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Radl C, Muller M, Revilla-Fernandez S, Karner-Zuser S, de Martin A, Schauer U, Karner F, Stanek G, Balcke P, Hallas A, Frank H, Furnschlief A, Erhart F, Allerberger F, 2011. Outbreak of leptospirosis among triathlon participants in Langau, Austria, 2010. Wien Klin Wochenschr 123: 751755.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Forbes AE, Zochowski WJ, Dubrey SW, Sivaprakasam V, 2012. Leptospirosis and Weil's disease in the UK. QJM 105: 11511162.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Narita M, Fujitani S, Haake DA, Paterson DL, 2005. Leptospirosis after recreational exposure to water in the Yaeyama islands, Japan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 652656.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Ashford DA, Kaiser RM, Spiegel RA, Perkins BA, Weyant RS, Bragg SL, Plikaytis B, Jarquin C, De Lose Reyes JO, Amador JJ, 2000. Asymptomatic infection and risk factors for leptospirosis in Nicaragua. Am J Trop Med Hyg 63: 249254.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bovet P, Yersin C, Merien F, Davis CE, Perolat P, 1999. Factors associated with clinical leptospirosis: a population-based case-control study in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean). Int J Epidemiol 28: 583590.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Everard CO, Bennett S, Edwards CN, Nicholson GD, Hassell TA, Carrington DG, Everard JD, 1992. An investigation of some risk factors for severe leptospirosis on Barbados. J Trop Med Hyg 95: 1322.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Johnson MA, Smith H, Joeph P, Gilman RH, Bautista CT, Campos KJ, Cespedes M, Klatsky P, Vidal C, Terry H, Calderon MM, Coral C, Cabrera L, Parmar PS, Vinetz JM, 2004. Environmental exposure and leptospirosis, Peru. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 10161022.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Douglin CP, Jordan C, Rock R, Hurley A, Levett PN, 1997. Risk factors for severe leptospirosis in the parish of St. Andrew, Barbados. Emerg Infect Dis 3: 7880.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Leal-Castellanos CB, Garcia-Suarez R, Gonzalez-Figueroa E, Fuentes-Allen JL, Escobedo-de la Penal J, 2003. Risk factors and the prevalence of leptospirosis infection in a rural community of Chiapas, Mexico. Epidemiol Infect 131: 11491156.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Nardone A, Capek I, Baranton G, Campese C, Postic D, Vaillant V, Lienard M, Desenclos JC, 2004. Risk factors for leptospirosis in metropolitan France: results of a national case-control study, 1999–2000. Clin Infect Dis 39: 751753.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Phraisuwan P, Whitney EA, Tharmaphornpilas P, Guharat S, Thongkamsamut S, Aresagig S, Liangphongphanthu J, Junthima K, Sokampang A, Ashford DA, 2002. Leptospirosis: skin wounds and control strategies, Thailand, 1999. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 14551459.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Sarkar U, Nascimento SF, Barbosa R, Martins R, Nuevo H, Kalafanos I, Grunstein I, Flannery B, Dias J, Riley LW, Reis MG, Ko AI, 2002. Population-based case-control investigation of risk factors for leptospirosis during an urban epidemic. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66: 605610.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Tangkanakul W, Tharmaphornpil P, Plikaytis BD, Bragg S, Poonsuksombat D, Choomkasien P, Kingnate D, Ashford DA, 2000. Risk factors associated with leptospirosis in northeastern Thailand, 1998. Am J Trop Med Hyg 63: 204208.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Agampodi SB, Nugegoda DB, Thevanesam V, 2010. Determinants of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka: study protocol. BMC Infect Dis 10: 332.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Agampodi S, Peacock SJ, Thevanesam V, 2009. The potential emergence of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka. Lancet Infect Dis 9: 524526.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Agampodi SB, Peacock SJ, Thevanesam V, Nugegoda DB, Smythe L, Thaipadungpanit J, Craig SB, Burns MA, Dohnt M, Boonsilp S, Senaratne T, Kumara A, Palihawadana P, Perera S, Vinetz JM, 2011. Leptospirosis outbreak in Sri Lanka in 2008: lessons for assessing the global burden of disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg 85: 471478.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Agampodi SB, Matthias MA, Moreno AC, Vinetz JM, 2012. Utility of quantitative polymerase chain reaction in leptospirosis diagnosis: association of level of leptospiremia and clinical manifestations in Sri Lanka. Clin Infect Dis 54: 12491255.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Karaseva EV, Chernukha Iu G, Strikhanova EV, 1984. Natural focus of leptospirosis in the rice paddies of Krasmodar Territory and the means for its eradication. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol (3): 5862.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Ramachandran S, Rajapakse CN, Perera MV, 1974. Changing patterns in leptospirosis in Sri Lanka. Ceylon Med J 19: 142149.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Walloopillai NJ, Markus HK, Nityananda K, 1966. Leptospirosis in Ceylon. Ceylon Med J 11: 5058.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Rajasuriya K, Munasinghe DR, Vitarne UT, Ratnaike VT, Peiris OA, 1964. Leptopspirosis in Ceylon: a clinical study. Ceylon Med J 93: 136153.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Sugunan AP, Vijayachari P, Sharma S, Roy S, Manickam P, Natarajaseenivasan K, Gupte MD, Sehgal SC, 2009. Risk factors associated with leptospirosis during an outbreak in Middle Andaman, India. Indian J Med Res 130: 6773.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Lewis FI, Gunn GJ, McKendrick IJ, Murray FM, 2009. Bayesian inference for within-herd prevalence of Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo using bulk milk antibody testing. Biostatistics 10: 719728.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Hesterberg UW, Bagnall R, Bosch B, Perrett K, Horner R, Gummow B, 2009. A serological survey of leptospirosis in cattle of rural communities in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. J S Afr Vet Assoc 80: 4549.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Odontsetseg N, Sakoda Y, Kida H, 2005. Serological evidence of the persistence of infection with Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo in cattle in Mongolia. Microbiol Immunol 49: 865869.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Krawczyk M, 2005. Serological evidence of leptospirosis in animals in northern Poland. Vet Rec 156: 8889.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Zwijnenberg RJ, Smythe LD, Symonds MI, Dohnt MF, Toribio JA, 2008. Cross-sectional study of canine leptospirosis in animal shelter populations in mainland Australia. Aust Vet J 86: 317323.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Suepaul SM, Carrington CV, Campbell M, Borde G, Adesiyun AA, 2009. Serovars of Leptospira isolated from dogs and rodents. Epidemiol Infect 138: 10591070.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Jimenez-Coello M, Ortega-Pacheco A, Guzman-Marin E, Guiris-Andrade DM, Martinez-Figueroa L, Acosta-Viana KY, 2009. Stray dogs as reservoirs of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in an urban area of Chiapas in Southern Mexico. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 10: 135141.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Alton GD, Berke O, Reid-Smith R, Ojkic D, Prescott JF, 2009. Increase in seroprevalence of canine leptospirosis and its risk factors, Ontario 1998–2006. Can J Vet Res 73: 167175.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Ghneim GS, Viers JH, Chomel BB, Kass PH, Descollonges DA, Johnson ML, 2007. Use of a case-control study and geographic information systems to determine environmental and demographic risk factors for canine leptospirosis. Vet Res 38: 3750.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0465
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0465
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 26 Jul 2014
  • Accepted : 27 Aug 2014
  • Published online : 07 Jan 2015
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error