Volume 92, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



To determine the exposure risk factors of highly endemic rural leptospirosis in tropical setting, we conducted a prospective, hospital-based case control study in Sri Lanka. A conceptual hierarchy of variables was used to analyze the data. Case patients included 38 (34%) females and 73 (66%) males with a mean age of 36 yr (SD 12.7 yr). Using piped, chlorinated water for drinking/general purposes (odds ratio [OR] 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16–0.67), paddy fields in the vicinity of home (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.06–2.97), sighting dogs at home yard/dog ownership (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.11–2.91), sighting cattle at home yard/cattle ownership (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.00–2.84), and work in a paddy field (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.68, 5.41) were the main predictors of leptospirosis among febrile patients. In high endemic tropical settings with rural leptospirosis, risk factors in residential environments, rather than individual exposures, seemed to play a major role in leptospirosis disease transmission.


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  • Received : 26 Jul 2014
  • Accepted : 27 Aug 2014

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