Volume 91, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



We report three cases of lymphocutaneous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, from Australia's tropical Northern Territory. Two cases were acquired locally, making them the first to be reported from this region. All three cases presented with ulceration in the limb; however, the classical sporotrichoid spread was present only in the first two cases. Their occurrence within several weeks of each other was suggestive of a common source of environmental contamination such as hay used as garden mulch. Diagnoses were delayed in each case, with each patient having substantial exposure to ineffective antibiotics before the correct diagnosis was made. These cases bring the total number of reported sporotrichosis cases in Australia since 1951 to 199. Lessons from these cases are to consider the diagnosis of sporotrichosis in lesions of typical appearance, even in geographical settings from where this pathogen has not previously been reported.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Rivitti EA, Aoki V, , 1999. Deep fungal infections in tropical countries. Clin dermatol 17: 171190; discussion 105–106.[Crossref]
  2. Tobin EH, Jih WW, , 2001. Sporotrichoid lymphocutaneous infections: etiology, diagnosis and therapy. Am Fam Physician 63: 326332.
  3. Barros MB, de Almeida Paes R, Schubach AO, , 2011. Sporothrix schenckii and sporotrichosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 24: 633654.[Crossref]
  4. Sivagnanam S, Bannan AM, Chen SC, Ralph AP, , 2012. Sporotrichosis (Sporothrix schenckii infection) in the New South Wales mid-north coast, 2000–2010. Med J Aust 196: 588590.[Crossref]
  5. Robinson CF, Orban TD, , 1951. A case of regional lymphatic sporotrichosis. Aust J Dermatol 1: 142144.[Crossref]
  6. Barrack BB, Powell RE, , 1952. Sporotrichosis. Med J Aust 2: 624626.
  7. Minty CC, Mead M, McCaffrey MF, , 1956. Sporotrichosis: a case report from Queensland. Med J Aust 43: 704705.
  8. Mead M, Ridley MF, , 1957. Sporotrichosis and chromoblastomycosis in Queensland. Med J Aust 44: 192197.
  9. Durie EB, Frey D, Becke RF, , 1961. Sporotrichosis: report of a case from Sydney, Australia. Aust J Dermatol 6: 7172.[Crossref]
  10. O'Donnell JM, , 1962. A case of sporotrichosis. Med J Aust 49: 517518.
  11. Muir DB, Pritchard RC, , 1984. Sporothrix schenckii–incidence in the Sydney region. Australas J Dermatol 25: 2728.[Crossref]
  12. Robertson D, , 1967. Report of two cases of sporotrichosis of the face. Australas J Dermatol 9: 7682.[Crossref]
  13. Black RB, McAleer R, , 1975. A case of sporotrichosis in Western Australia. Australas J Dermatol 16: 3238.[Crossref]
  14. Auld JC, Beardmore GL, , 1979. Sporotrichosis in Queensland: a review of 37 cases at the Royal Brisbane Hospital. Australas J Dermatol 20: 1422.[Crossref]
  15. Beardmore GL, , 1979. Recalcitrant sporotrichosis: a report of a patient treated with various therapies including oral miconazole and 5-fluorocytosine. Australas J Dermatol 20: 1013.[Crossref]
  16. Bullpitt P, Weedon D, , 1978. Sporotrichosis: a review of 39 cases. Pathology 10: 249256.[Crossref]
  17. Conias S, Wilson P, , 1998. Epidemic cutaneous sporotrichosis: report of 16 cases in Queensland due to moldy hay. Australas J Dermatol 39: 3437.[Crossref]
  18. Moaven LD, Altman SA, Newnham AR, , 1999. Sporotrichosis mimicking necrotising arachnidism. Med J Aust 171: 685686.
  19. Feeney KT, Arthur IH, Whittle AJ, Altman SA, Speers DJ, , 2007. Outbreak of sporotrichosis, Western Australia. Emerg Infect Dis 13: 12281231.[Crossref]
  20. Dooley DP, Bostic PS, Beckius ML, , 1997. Spook house sporotrichosis. A point-source outbreak of sporotrichosis associated with hay bale props in a Halloween haunted-house. Arch Intern Med 157: 18851887.[Crossref]
  21. Pappas PG, Tellez I, Deep AE, Nolasco D, Holgado W, Bustamante B, , 2000. Sporotrichosis in Peru: description of an area of hyperendemicity. Clin Infect Dis 30: 6570.[Crossref]
  22. Currie BJ, Carapetis JR, , 2000. Skin infections and infestations in Aboriginal communities in northern Australia. Australas J Dermatol 41: 139143, quiz 44–45.[Crossref]
  23. Fisher D, Burrow J, Lo D, Currie BJ, , 1993. Cryptococcus neoformans in tropical northern Australia: predominantly variant gattii with good outcomes. Aust N Z J Med 23: 678682.[Crossref]
  24. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 2008. CLSI Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Filamentous Fungi: Approved Standard. Second edition. 2005. Available at: http://shopping.netsuite.com/c.1253739/site/Sample_pdf/M38A2_sample.pdf.
  25. Ellis DH, Davis S, Alexiou H, Handke R, Bartley R, , 2007. Descriptions of Medical Fungi. Second edition. ISBN: 9780959851267. Available at: http://www.mycology.adelaide.edu.au/downloads/Mycology-BookWEB.pdf.
  26. Tambini R, Farina C, Fiocchi R, Dupont B, Guého E, Delvecchio G, Mamprin F, Gavazzeni G, , 1996. Possible pathogenic role for Sporothrix cyanescens isolated from a lung lesion in a heart transplant patient. J Med Vet Mycol 34: 195198.[Crossref]
  27. Sigler L, Harris JL, Dixon DM, Flis AL, Salkin IF, Kemna M, Duncan RA, , 1990. Microbiology and potential virulence of Sporothrix cyanescens, a fungus rarely isolated from blood and skin. J Clin Microbiol 28: 10091015.
  28. Jackson L, Klotz SA, Normand RE, , 1990. A pseudoepidemic of Sporothrix cyanescens pneumonia occurring during renovation of a bronchoscopy suite. J Med Vet Mycol 28: 455459.[Crossref]
  29. Pegg GS, Dwyer CO, Carnegie AJ, Burgess TI, Wingfield MJ, Drenth A, , 2008. Quambalaria species associated with plantation and native eucalypts in Australia. Plant Pathol 57: 702714.[Crossref]
  30. Sutton DA, Fothergill AW, Rinaldi MG, , 1998. Guide to the Clinically Significant Fungi. First edition. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.
  31. de Beer ZW, Harrington TC, Vismer HF, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ, , 2003. Phylogeny of the Ophiostoma stenoceras-Sporothrix schenckii complex. Mycologia 95: 434441.[Crossref]
  32. Paap T, Burgess TI, McComb JA, Shearer BL, St J Hardy GE, , 2008. Quambalaria species, including Q. coyrecup sp. nov., implicated in canker and shoot blight diseases causing decline of Corymbia species in the southwest of Western Australia. Mycol Res 112: 5769.[Crossref]
  33. Chen SC, Currie BJ, Campbell HM, Fisher DA, Pfeiffer TJ, Ellis DH, Sorrell TC, , 1997. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii infection in northern Australia: existence of an environmental source other than known host eucalypts. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91: 547550.[Crossref]
  34. Tang MM, Tang JJ, Gill P, Chang CC, Baba R, , 2012. Cutaneous sporotrichosis: a six-year review of 19 cases in a tertiary referral center in Malaysia. Int J Dermatol 51: 702708.[Crossref]
  35. Sharon VR, Kim J, Sudhakar S, Fung MA, Maniar A, , 2013. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis. Lancet Infect Dis 13: 95.[Crossref]
  36. de Lima Barros MB, Schubach AO, de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de Oliveira R, Martins EB, Teixeira JL, Wanke B, , 2011. Treatment of cutaneous sporotrichosis with itraconazole–study of 645 patients. Clin Infect Dis 52: e200e206.[Crossref]
  37. Marimon R, Serena C, Gene J, Cano J, Guarro J, , 2008. In vitro antifungal susceptibilities of five species of sporothrix. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52: 732734.[Crossref]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 23 Jul 2014
  • Accepted : 06 Aug 2014

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error