Volume 93, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



To estimate the incidence (any mother to child) and rate (from seropositive mother to child) of mother-to-child transmission of , a serological census was conducted, targeting pregnant women and infants born to seropositive mothers, in four municipalities of El Salvador. Of 943 pregnant women, 36 (3.8%) were seropositive for . Of 36, 32 proceeded to serological tests of their infants when they became 6–8 months of age. Six infants seropositive at the age of 6–8 months further proceeded to second-stage serological test at the age of 9–16 months. As the result, one infant was congenitally infected. Thus, serological tests at the age of 6–8 months produced five false positives. To ensure earlier effective medication only for true positives, identification of seropositive infants at the age of 9–16 months is crucial. Incidence and rate of mother-to-child transmission were 0.14 (per 100 person-years) and 4.0%, respectively. Estimated number of children infected through mother-to-child transmission in El Salvador (170 per year) was much higher than that of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; seven per year). It is recommended that serological testing for be integrated into those for HIV and syphilis as part of antenatal care package.


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  • Received : 08 Jul 2014
  • Accepted : 06 May 2015
  • Published online : 05 Aug 2015

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