Volume 91, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



In malaria-endemic regions, many medical facilities have limited capacity to diagnose non-malarial etiologies of acute febrile illness (AFI). As a result, the etiology of AFI is seldom determined, although AFI remains a major cause of morbidity in developing countries. An outbreak of AFI was reported in the Afar region of Ethiopia in August of 2011. Retrospectively, 12,816 suspected AFI cases were identified by review of medical records. Symptoms were mild and self-limiting within 3 days after the date of onset; no fatalities were identified. All initial test results of AFI patient specimens were negative for selected pathogens using standard microbiological and molecular techniques. High-throughput sequencing of nucleic acid extracts of serum specimens from 29 AFI cases identified 17 (59%) of 29 samples as positive for Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus (SFSV). These results were further confirmed by specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. This is the first study implicating SFSV as an etiological agent for AFI in Ethiopia.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Archibald LK, Reller LB, , 2001. Clinical microbiology in developing countries. Emerg Infect Dis 7: 302305.[Crossref]
  2. Crump JA, Youssef FG, Luby SP, Wasfy MO, Rangel JM, Taalat M, Oun SA, Mahoney FJ, , 2003. Estimating the incidence of typhoid fever and other febrile illnesses in developing countries. Emerg Inf Dis 9: 539544.[Crossref]
  3. Animut A, Mekonnen Y, Shimelis D, Ephrahim E, , 2009. Febrile illnesses of different etiology among outpatients in four health centers in northwestern Ethiopia. Jpn J Infect Dis 62: 107110.
  4. Depaquit J, Grandadam M, Fouque F, Andry PE, Peyrefitte C, , 2010. Arthropod- borne viruses transmitted by Phlebotomine sandflies in Europe: a review. Euro Surveill 15: 19507.
  5. Dionisio D, Esperti F, Vivarelli A, Valassina M, , 2003. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory aspects of sandfly fever. Curr Opin Infect Dis 16: 383388.[Crossref]
  6. Tesh RB, Saidi S, Gajdamovic SJ, Rodhain F, Vesenjak-Hirjan J, , 1976. Serological studies on the epidemiology of sandfly fever in the old world. Bull World Health Organ 54: 663674.
  7. Drosten C, Göttig S, Schilling S, Asper M, Panning M, Schmitz H, Günther S, , 2002. Rapid detection and quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg viruses, Lassa virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. J Clin Microbiol 40: 23232330.[Crossref]
  8. Handley SA, Thackray LB, Zhao G, Presti R, Miller AD, Droit L, Abbink P, Maxfield LF, Kambal A, Duan E, Stanley K, Kramer J, Macri SC, Permar SR, Schmitz JE, Mansfield K, Brenchley JM, Veazey RS, Stappenbeck TS, Wang D, Barouch DH, Virgin HW, , 2012. Pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection is associated with expansion of the enteric virome. Cell 151: 253266.[Crossref]
  9. Zhao G, Krishnamurthy S, Cai Z, Popov VL, Travassos da Rosa AP, Guzman H, Cao S, Virgin HW, Tesh RB, Wang D, , 2013. Identification of novel viruses using VirusHunter–an automated data analysis pipeline. PLoS ONE 8: e78470.[Crossref]
  10. Lambert AJ, Lanciotti RS, , 2009. Consensus amplification and novel multiplex sequencing method for s segment species identification of 47 viruses of the Orthobunyavirus, Phlebovirus, and Nairovirus genera of the family Bunyaviridae. J Clin Microbiol 47: 23982404.[Crossref]
  11. Thompson JD, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ, , 1994. CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22: 46734680.[Crossref]
  12. Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S, , 2007. MEGA4: molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol 24: 15961599.[Crossref]
  13. Saitou N, Nei M, , 1987. The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4: 406425.
  14. Guler S, Guler E, Caglayik DY, Kokoglu OF, Ucmak H, Bayrakdar F, Uyar Y, , 2012. A sandfly fever virus outbreak in the east Mediterranean region of Turkey. Int J Infect Dis 16: 244246.[Crossref]
  15. Moureau G, Bichaud L, Salez N, Ninove L, Hamrioui B, Belazzoug S, de Lamballerie X, Izri A, Charrel RN, , 2010. Molecular and serological evidence for the presence of novel phleboviruses in sandflies from northern Algeria. Open Virol J 4: 1521.
  16. Zhioua E, Moureau G, Chelbi I, Ninove L, Bichaud L, Derbali M, Champs M, Cherni S, Salez N, Cook S, de Lamballerie X, Charrel RN, , 2010. Punique virus, a novel phlebovirus, related to sandfly fever Naples virus, isolated from sandflies collected in Tunisia. J Gen Virol 91: 12751283.[Crossref]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 14 May 2014
  • Accepted : 18 Aug 2014

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error