1921
Volume 91, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Mute swans () are an invasive species in the United States. The dramatic increase in their populations in localized areas has led to various problems, among them competition with native species and attacks on humans by aggressive swans. However, very little is known about the ability of these swans to transmit pathogens to humans, domestic birds, or wildlife or participate in enzootic maintenance. To learn more about select pathogens that mute swans may harbor, a survey was conducted from April of 2011 to August of 2012 in the Great Lakes region and localized areas of the Atlantic coast, which revealed serologic evidence of arbovirus exposure in mute swans. Of 497 mute swans tested, antibodies were detected for eastern equine encephalitis (4.8%), St. Louis encephalitis (1.4%), West Nile (1.2%), and Turlock (0.6%) viruses. Samples were also tested for evidence of antibodies to La Crosse virus, but none were positive.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0280
2014-12-03
2017-09-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/91/6/1247.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0280&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Kramer LD, Styer LM, Ebel GD, , 2008. A global perspective on the epidemiology of West Nile virus. Annu Rev Entomol 53: 6181.[Crossref]
  2. McLean RG, , 2006. West Nile virus in North American birds. Ornitol Monogr 60: 4464.[Crossref]
  3. Nemeth NM, Beckett S, Edwards E, Klenk K, Komar N, , 2007. Avian mortality surveillance for West Nile virus in Colorado. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 431437.
  4. Beaty BJ, Calisher CH, Shope RE, Lennette EH, Lennette DA, Lennette ET, , 1995. Arboviruses. , eds. Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial, and Chlamydial Infections. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 189212.
  5. Scott TW, McLean RG, Francy DB, Mitchell CJ, Card CS, , 1983. Experimental infections of birds with Turlock Virus. J Wildl Dis 19: 8285.[Crossref]
  6. Twining JE, , 1987. Mute Swans of the Atlantic Coast. Wickford, RI: Dutch Island Press.
  7. Bailey M, Petrie SA, Badzinski SS, , 2008. Diet of mute swans in lower Great Lakes coastal marshes. J Wildl Manage 72: 726732.[Crossref]
  8. Therres G, Brinker D, Perry MC, , 2004. Mute swan interaction with other birds in Chesapeake Bay. , ed. Mute Swans and Their Chesapeake Bay Habitats: Proceedings of a Symposium. Reston, VA: US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey, 4346.
  9. Hubálek Z, , 2004. An annotated checklist of pathogenic microorganisms associated with migratory birds. J Wildl Dis 40: 639659.[Crossref]
  10. Stamm DD, , 1966. Relationships of birds and arboviruses. Auk 83: 8497.[Crossref]
  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011. St. Louis Encephalitis, Epidemiology and Geographic Distribution. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/sle/technical/epi.html. Accessed July 24, 2014.
  12. Ciaranca MA, Allin CC, Jones GS, Poole A, , 1997. Mute swan (Cygnus olor). , ed. The Birds of North America Online. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Lab of Ornithology.
  13. McLean RG, Ubico SR, Thomas NJ, Hunter DB, Atkinson CT, , 2008. Arboviruses in birds. , eds. Infectious Diseases of Wild Birds. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing, 1762.
  14. Kronenwetter-Koepel TA, Meece JK, Miller CA, Reed KD, , 2005. Surveillance of above-and below-ground mosquito breeding habitats in a rural midwestern community: baseline data for larvicidal control measures against West Nile Virus vectors. Clin Med Res 3: 312.[Crossref]
  15. Kolman JM, Folk C, Hudec K, Reddy GN, , 1976. Serologic examination of birds from the area of southern Moravia for the presence of antibodies against arboviruses of the groups alfa, flavo, Uukuniemi, Turlock and Bunyamwera supergroup II wild living birds. Folia Parasitol (Praha) 23: 251255.
  16. Calisher CH, Karabatsos N, Monath TP, , 1988. Arbovirus serogroups: definition and geographic distribution. , ed. The Arboviruses: Epidemiology and Ecology, Vol. I. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1957.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0280
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0280
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 05 May 2014
  • Accepted : 18 Aug 2014

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error