Volume 93, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Robust and responsive surveillance systems are critical for malaria elimination. The ideal information system that supports malaria elimination includes: rapid and complete case reporting, incorporation of related data, such as census or health survey information, central data storage and management, automated and expert data analysis, and customized outputs and feedback that lead to timely and targeted responses. Spatial information enhances such a system, ensuring cases are tracked and mapped over time. Data sharing and coordination across borders are vital and new technologies can improve data speed, accuracy, and quality. Parts of this ideal information system exist and are in use, but have yet to be linked together coherently. Malaria elimination programs should support the implementation and refinement of information systems to support surveillance and response and ensure political and financial commitment to maintain the systems and the human resources needed to run them. National malaria programs should strive to improve the access and utility of these information systems and establish cross-border data sharing mechanisms through the use of standard indicators for malaria surveillance. Ultimately, investment in the information technologies that support a timely and targeted surveillance and response system is essential for malaria elimination.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Feachem RG, Phillips AA, Targett GA, Snow RW, , 2010. Call to action: priorities for malaria elimination. Lancet 376: 15171521.[Crossref]
  2. Tanner M, de Savigny D, , 2008. Malaria eradication back on the table. Bull World Health Organ 86: 82.[Crossref]
  3. Alonso PL, Brown G, Arevalo-Herrera M, Binka F, Chitnis C, Collins F, Doumbo OK, Greenwood B, Hall BF, Levine MM, Mendis K, Newman RD, Plowe CV, Rodríguez MH, Sinden R, Slutsker L, Tanner M, , 2011. A research agenda to underpin malaria eradication. PLoS Med 8: e1000406.[Crossref]
  4. Hay SI, Smith DL, Snow RW, , 2008. Measuring malaria endemicity from intense to interrupted transmission. Lancet Infect Dis 8: 369378.[Crossref]
  5. Nájera JA, González-Silva M, Alonso PL, , 2011. Some lessons for the future from the Global Malaria Eradication Programme (1955–1969). PLoS Med 8: e1000412.[Crossref]
  6. Cao J, Sturrock HJW, Cotter C, Zhou S, Zhou H, Liu Y, Tang L, Gosling RD, Feachem RGA, Ga Q, , 2014. Communicating and monitoring surveillance and response activities for malaria elimination: China's “1-3-7” Strategy. PLoS Med 11: e1001642.[Crossref]
  7. The malERIA Consultative Group on Monitoring, Evaluation, and Surveillance, 2011. The malERA Consultative Group on Monitoring, E. A research agenda for malaria eradication: monitoring, evaluation, and surveillance. PLoS Med 8: e1000400.[Crossref]
  8. M'ikanatha NM, Lynfield R, Julian KG, Van Beneden CA, de Valk H, M'ikanatha NM, Lynfield R, Beneden CAV, de Valk H, , 2013. Infectious disease surveillance: a cornerstone for prevention and control. , eds. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 120. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781118543504.ch1/summary.
  9. World Health Organization and Global Malaria Programme, 2012. Disease Surveillance for Malaria Elimination an Operational Manual. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  10. World Health Organization, 2008. WHO Recommended Standards for Surveillance of Selected Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/42510.
  11. Harris BN, Dürrheim DN, Ogunbanjo GA, , 2003. Polio eradication—the validity of surveillance indicators. Trop Med Int Health 8: 386391.[Crossref]
  12. Van Beneden CA, Arvay M, Thamthitiwat S, Lynfield R, M'ikanatha NM, Lynfield R, Beneden CAV, de Valk H, , 2013. Active, population-based surveillance for infectious diseases. , eds. Infectious Disease Surveillance. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 93108. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781118543504.ch8/summary.
  13. Sahal N, Reintjes R, Aro AR, , 2009. Review article: communicable diseases surveillance lessons learned from developed and developing countries: literature review. Scand J Public Health 37: 187200.[Crossref]
  14. Breman JG, Alilio MS, Mills A, Breman JG, Alilio MS, , 2004. Conquering the Intolerable Burden of Malaria: What's New, What's Needed: A Summary. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK3750/.
  15. Zhou X-N, Bergquist R, Tanner M, , 2013. Elimination of tropical disease through surveillance and response. Infect Dis Poverty 2: 1.[Crossref]
  16. Novotny J, , 2013. Swaziland Malaria Elimination Update 2012–2013.
  17. Kelly GC, Tanner M, Vallely A, Clements A, , 2012. Malaria elimination: moving forward with spatial decision support systems. Trends Parasitol 28: 297304.[Crossref]
  18. Operations Research. Merriam-Webster. Available at: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/operationsresearch.
  19. Hamrock E, Paige K, Parks J, Scheulen J, Levin S, , 2013. Discrete event simulation for healthcare organizations: a tool for decision making. J Healthc Manag Am Coll Healthc Exec 58: 110124; discussion 124–125.
  20. Gray M, , 2012. Value: operations research and the new health care paradigm. Oper Res Health Care 1: 2021.[Crossref]
  21. Clinton Health Access Initiative. 2013. Malaria Elimination in Haiti.
  22. The Roll Back Malaria Partnership, 2011. Eliminating Malaria: Learning from the Past, Looking Ahead. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  23. World Health Organization, 2010. WHO|Malaria Programme Reviews: A Manual for Reviewing the Performance of Malaria Control and Elimination Programmes. Available at: http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/atoz/whomprmalariaprogramperformancemanual/en/.
  24. World Health Organization, 2009. WHO|Malaria Case Management: Operations Manual. Available at: http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/atoz/9789241598088/en/.
  25. Malaria Consortium, National Center for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control, World Health Organization, 2011. Moving Towards Malaria Elimination: Tools for Strengthening Malaria Surveillance in Cambodia. Available at: http://www.malariaconsortium.org/userfiles/file/Resistance-Resources/Surveillance%20Tools%20-%20Moving%20Towards%20Malaria%20Elimination.pdf.
  26. National Center for Parasitology, 2013. Entomology and Malaria Control. Cambodia Malaria Bulletin Jan–Jun 2013. Available at: http://www.cnm.gov.kh/userfiles/file/Buletin/Malaria%20Bulletin%20Jan-Jun%202013_23Jul2013.pdf.
  27. Qi G, . 1, 3, 7 New Malaria Elimination Strategy Implementation in China.
  28. Kelly GC, Hii J, Batarii W, Donald W, Hale E, Nausien J, Pontifex S, Vallely A, Tanner M, Clements A, , 2010. Modern geographical reconnaissance of target populations in malaria elimination zones. Malar J 9: 289.[Crossref]
  29. Hsiang MS, Hwang J, Kunene S, Drakeley C, Kandula D, Novotny J, Parizo J, Jensen T, Tong M, Kemere J, Dlamini S, Moonen B, Angov E, Dutta S, Ockenhouse C, Dorsey G, Greenhouse B, , 2012. Surveillance for malaria elimination in Swaziland: a national cross-sectional study using pooled PCR and serology. PLoS One 7: e29550.[Crossref]
  30. Thailand Bureau of Vector-borne Disease, 2010. National Monitoring and Evaluation Plan for Malaria Control and Elimination in Thailand, 2011–2016. Available at: http://whothailand.healthrepository.org/bitstream/123456789/1443/1/Thailand%20Malaria%20Plan.pdf.
  31. Biophics and Thailand Malaria Control and Elimination Program, Thailand—The Single Stream Funding—Malaria. Available at: http://www.biophics.org/malariaR10/.
  32. Zambia Ministry of Health, Zambia DHIS2 Rapid Reporting Web Dashboard. Available at: http://dhis.co.zm/R/dash?&organisationunitid=3829.
  33. Littrell M, Miller JM, Ndhlovu M, Hamainza B, Hawela M, Kamuliwo M, Hamer DH, Steketee RW, , 2013. Documenting malaria case management coverage in Zambia: a systems effectiveness approach. Malar J 12: 371.[Crossref]
  34. Yang G-J, Tanner M, Utzinger J, Malone JB, Bergquist R, Chan EYY, Gao Q, Zhou X-N, , 2012. Malaria surveillance-response strategies in different transmission zones of the People's Republic of China: preparing for climate change. Malar J 11: 426.[Crossref]
  35. Kelly GC, Hale E, Donald W, Batarii W, Bugoro H, Nausien J, Smale J, Palmer K, Bobogare A, Taleo G, Vallely A, Tanner M, Vestergaard LS, Clements ACA, , 2013. A high-resolution geospatial surveillance-response system for malaria elimination in Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Malar J 12: 108.[Crossref]
  36. Cohen JM, Dlamini S, Novotny JM, Kandula D, Kunene S, Tatem AJ, , 2013. Rapid case-based mapping of seasonal malaria transmission risk for strategic elimination planning in Swaziland. Malar J 12: 61.[Crossref]
  37. Moonen B, Cohen JM, Snow RW, Slutsker L, Drakeley C, Smith DL, Abeyasinghe RR, Rodrigues MH, Maharaj R, Tanner M, Targett G, , 2010. Operational strategies to achieve and maintain malaria elimination. Lancet 376: 15921603.[Crossref]
  38. Zanzibar National Malaria Control Program, 2009. Malaria Elimination in Zanzibar. Available at: http://www.soperstrategies.com/countries/pemba/tanzania-library/files/EliminationZanzibar.pdf.
  39. Clements AC, Reid HL, Kelly GC, Hay SI, , 2013. Further shrinking the malaria map: how can geospatial science help to achieve malaria elimination? Lancet Infect Dis 13: 709718.[Crossref]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 25 Apr 2014
  • Accepted : 13 Apr 2015

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error