Volume 91, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



We measured the effectiveness of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention program developed in Kenya and carried out among university students. A total of 182 student volunteers were randomized into an intervention group who received a 32-hour training course as HIV prevention peer educators and a control group who received no training. Repeated measures assessed HIV-related attitudes, intentions, knowledge, and behaviors four times over six months. Data were analyzed by using linear mixed models to compare the rate of change on 13 dependent variables that examined sexual risk behavior. Based on multi-level models, the slope coefficients for four variables showed reliable change in the hoped for direction: abstinence from oral, vaginal, or anal sex in the last two months, condom attitudes, HIV testing, and refusal skill. The intervention demonstrated evidence of non-zero slope coefficients in the hoped for direction on 12 of 13 dependent variables. The intervention reduced sexual risk behavior.


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  • Received : 09 Mar 2014
  • Accepted : 26 May 2014
  • Published online : 03 Sep 2014

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