Volume 91, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Compliance with mass drug administration (MDA) can be affected by rumors and mistrust about the drug. Communication campaigns are an effective way to influence attitudes and health behaviors in diverse public health contexts, but there is very little documentation about experiences using health communications in schistosomiasis control programs. A qualitative study was conducted with community health workers (CHWs) as informants to explore the effect of a health communication campaign on their experiences during subsequent praziquantel MDA for schistosomiasis. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated into English where applicable, and analyzed thematically using ATLAS.ti software. According to the CHWs, exposure to mass media messages improved awareness of the MDA, which in turn, led to better treatment compliance. Our findings suggest that communication campaigns influence health behaviors and create awareness of schistosomiasis control interventions, which may ultimately improve praziquantel MDA.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Koroma JB, Sesay S, Sonnie M, Hodges MH, Sahr F, Zhang Y, Bockarie MJ, , 2013. Impact of three rounds of mass drug administration on lymphatic filariasis in areas previously treated for onchocerciasis in Sierra Leone. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2273.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Kabatereine NB, Brooker S, Koukounari A, Kazibwe F, Tukahebwa EM, Fleming FM, Zhang Y, Webster JP, Stothard JR, Fenwick A, , 2007. Impact of a national helminth control programme on infection and morbidity in Ugandan schoolchildren. Bull World Health Organ 85: 9199.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Hotez PJ, , 2009. Mass drug administration and integrated control for the world's high-prevalence neglected tropical diseases. Clin Pharmacol Ther 85: 659664.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Hotez PJ, Fenwick A, Savioli L, Molyneux DH, , 2009. Rescuing the bottom billion through control of neglected tropical diseases. Lancet 373: 15701575.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Mwinzi PN, Montgomery SP, Owaga CO, Mwanje M, Muok EM, Ayisi JG, Laserson KF, Muchiri EM, Secor WE, Karanja DM, , 2012. Integrated community-directed intervention for schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths in western Kenya—a pilot study. Parasit Vectors 5: 182.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Parker M, Allen T, Hastings J, , 2008. Resisting control of neglected tropical diseases: dilemmas in the mass treatment of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths in north-west Uganda. J Biosoc Sci 40: 161181.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Parker M, Allen T, , 2011. Does mass drug administration for the integrated treatment of neglected tropical diseases really work? Assessing evidence for the control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths in Uganda. Health Res Policy Syst 9: 3.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Ashton RA, Kyabayinze DJ, Opio T, Auma A, Edwards T, Matwale G, Onapa A, Brooker S, Kolaczinski JH, , 2011. The impact of mass drug administration and long-lasting insecticidal net distribution on Wuchereria bancrofti infection in humans and mosquitoes: an observational study in northern Uganda. Parasit Vectors 4: 134.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Omedo MO, Matey EJ, Awiti A, Ogutu M, Alaii J, Karanja DM, Montgomery SP, Secor WE, Mwinzi PN, , 2012. Community health workers' experiences and perspectives on mass drug administration for schistosomiasis control in western Kenya: the SCORE Project. Am J Trop Med Hyg 87: 10651072.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Grilli R, Ramsay C, Minozzi S, , 2002. Mass media interventions: effects on health services utilisation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1: CD000389. [Google Scholar]
  11. Wakefield MA, Loken B, Hornik RC, , 2010. Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour. Lancet 376: 12611271.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Donovan RJ, Vlais R, , 2005. VicHealth Review of Communication Components of Social Marketing/Public Education Campaigns Focused on Violence Against Women. Melbourne, Australia: Victorian Health Promotion Foundation. [Google Scholar]
  13. Dungan-Seaver D, , 1999. Mass Media Initiatives and Children's Issues: An Analysis f Research Aand Recent Experiences Relevant to Potential Philanthropic Funders. Minneapolis, MN: McKnight Foundation. [Google Scholar]
  14. Farmer P, Frenk J, Knaul FM, Shulman LN, Alleyne G, Armstrong L, Atun R, Blayney D, Chen L, Feachem R, Gospodarowicz M, Gralow J, Gupta S, Langer A, Lob-Levyt J, Neal C, Mbewu A, Mired D, Piot P, Reddy KS, Sachs JD, Sarhan M, Seffrin JR, , 2010. Expansion of cancer care and control in countries of low and middle income: a call to action. Lancet 376: 11861193.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Goldstein G, Anderson A, Usdin S, Japhet G, , 2001. Soul Buddyz: a children's rights mass media campaign in South Africa. Health Hum Rights 5: 163173.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Bauman AE, Bellew B, Owen N, Vita P, , 2001. Impact of an Australian mass media campaign targeting physical activity in 1998. Am J Prev Med 21: 4147.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Geissler PW, , 2005. “Kachinja are coming!” Encounters around medical research work in a Kenyan village. Africa 75: 173202.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Bruun B, Aagaard-Hansen J, , 2008. The Socio-Cultural Context of Schistosomiasis Control. An Introduction and Annotated Bibliography. Geneva: Special Programme for Research & Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), UNICEF/UNDP/UNICEF/World Bank/WHO. Available at: http://pide.cpqrr.fiocruz.br/arquivos/social-context.pdf. Accessed May 10, 2014. [Google Scholar]
  19. Aagaard-Hansen J, Mwanga JR, Bruun B, , 2009. Social science perspectives on schistosomiasis control in Africa: past trends and future directions. Parasitology 136: 17471758.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Amarillo ML, Belizario VY, Jr Sadiang-Abay JT, Sison SA, Dayag AM, , 2008. Factors associated with the acceptance of mass drug administration for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis in Agusan del Sur, Philippines. Parasit Vectors 1: 14.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Samuels AM, Matey E, Mwinzi PN, Wiegand RE, Muchiri G, Ireri E, Hyde M, Montgomery SP, Karanja DM, Secor WE, , 2012. Schistosoma mansoni morbidity among school-aged children: a SCORE project in Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 87: 874882.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Meltzer MI, Terlouw DJ, Kolczak MS, Odhacha A, ter Kuile FO, Vulule JM, Alaii JA, Nahlen BL, Hawley WA, Phillips-Howard PA, , 2003. The household-level economics of using permethrin-treated bed nets to prevent malaria in children less than five years of age. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68: 149160. [Google Scholar]
  23. Odiere MR, Opisa S, Odhiambo G, Jura WG, Ayisi JM, Karanja DM, Mwinzi PN, , 2011. Geographical distribution of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths among school children in informal settlements in Kisumu City, Western Kenya. Parasitology 138: 15691577.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  24. Odiere MR, Rawago FO, Ombok M, Secor WE, Karanja DM, Mwinzi PN, Lammie PJ, Won K, , 2013. High prevalence of schistosomiasis in Mbita and its adjacent islands of Lake Victoria, western Kenya. Parasit Vectors 5: 278.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  25. Ministry of Health, 2006. Taking the Kenya Essential Package for Health to the Community a Strategy for the Delivery of Level One Services. Available at: http://www.nationalplanningcycles.org/sites/default/files/country_docs/Kenya/community_health_strategy_2006.pdf. Accessed October 10, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  26. Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC, , 1992. Stages of change in the modification of problem behaviors. Prog Behav Modif 28: 183218. [Google Scholar]
  27. Onwuliri C, Oguoma C, Anosike J, Nwoke B, Dozie I, Onwuliri V, Iwuala M, , 2005. The impact of cultural limitations, local beliefs and practices on emerging parasitic diseases in tropical Africa. Int J Nat Appl Sci 1: 153164. [Google Scholar]
  28. Flay BR, , 1987. Mass media and smoking cessation: a critical review. Am J Public Health 77: 153160.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  29. Dicicco-Bloom B, Crabtree BF, , 2006. The qualitative research interview. Med Educ 40: 314321.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  30. Barriball KL, While A, , 1994. Collecting data using a semi-structured interview: a discussion paper. J Adv Nurs 19: 328335.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  31. Minichiello V, , 2008. In-Depth Interviewing; Researching People, 3rd Ed. Melbourne, Australia: Longman Cheshire. [Google Scholar]
  32. Ritchie JSL, Bryman B, , 1994. Qualitative data analysis for applied policy research. , ed. Analysing Qualitative Data. London, United Kingdom: Routledge, 173194.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  33. Callaghan-Koru JA, Hyder AA, George A, Gilroy KE, Nsona H, Mtimuni A, Bryce J, , 2012. Health workers' and managers' perceptions of the integrated community case management program for childhood illness in Malawi: the importance of expanding access to child health services. Am J Trop Med Hyg 87: 6168.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  34. Pope C, Ziebland S, Mays N, , 2000. Qualitative research in health care. Analysing qualitative data. BMJ 320: 114116.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  35. Braun V, Clarke V, , 2006. Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology. Available at: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/11735/2/thematic_analysis_revised. Accessed December 17, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  36. Fielden AL, Sillence E, Little L, , 2011. Children's understandings' of obesity, a thematic analysis. Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being 6: 7170.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  37. Campbell M, Fitzpatrick R, Haines A, Kinmonth AL, Sandercock P, Spiegelhalter D, Tyrer P, , 2000. Framework for design and evaluation of complex interventions to improve health. BMJ 321: 694696.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  38. Hotez PJ, Thompson TG, , 2009. Waging peace through neglected tropical disease control: a US foreign policy for the bottom billion. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3: e346.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  39. Hotez PJ, Fenwick A, Kjetland EF, , 2009. Africa's 32 cents solution for HIV/AIDS. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3: e430.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  40. World Health Organization, 2006. Preventive Chemotherapy in Human Helminthiasis. Coordinated Use of Antiheminthic Drugs in Control Intervention. Available at: http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/preventive_chemotherapy/pct_manual/en/. Accessed December 12, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  41. Macintyre K, Littrell M, Keating J, Hamainza B, Miller J, Eisele TP, , 2012. Determinants of hanging and use of ITNs in the context of near universal coverage in Zambia. Health Policy Plan 27: 316325.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  42. O'Hara BJ, Bauman AE, Phongsavan P, , 2012. Using mass-media communications to increase population usage of Australia's Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service(R). BMC Public Health 12: 762.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  43. Cavill N, Bauman A, , 2004. Changing the way people think about health-enhancing physical activity: do mass media campaigns have a role? J Sports Sci 22: 771790.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  44. McGuire WJ, , 1984. Public communication as a strategy for inducing health-promoting behavioral change. Prev Med 13: 299319.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  45. World Health Organization, 2002. Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis: Report of a WHO Expert Committee. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_912.pdf. Accessed December 12, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  46. Aries MJ, Joosten H, Wegdam HH, van der Geest S, , 2007. Fracture treatment by bonesetters in central Ghana: patients explain their choices and experiences. Trop Med Int Health 12: 564574.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  47. Sturrock RF, Klumpp RK, Ouma JH, Butterworth AE, Fulford AJ, Kariuki HC, Thiongo FW, Koech D, , 1994. Observations on the effects of different chemotherapy strategies on the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni in Machakos District, Kenya, measured by long-term snail sampling and cercariometry. Parasitology 109: 443453.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  48. O'Brien MJ, Squires AP, Bixby RA, Larson SC, , 2009. Role development of community health workers: an examination of selection and training processes in the intervention literature. Am J Prev Med 37: S262S269.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 05 Mar 2014
  • Accepted : 07 Jul 2014
  • Published online : 05 Nov 2014

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error