Volume 91, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM) is a mountainous area in Colombia that is highly endemic to Chagas disease. We explored some eco-epidemiological attributes involved in the Chagas disease transmission scenario in three Indigenous communities. An epidemiological survey was done, where parasite infection in reservoirs and insects, genotyping, identification of blood-meal sources in intradomiciliary insects using the high-resolution melting technique, and some risk factors were evaluated. The results suggest that several dwelling conditions such as thatched palm roofs and mud walls carried the highest risk of finding intradomiciliary , which 56.41% were infected with and fed with human blood. Moreover, Ia was the most frequent haplotype found in insects. These results indicate the existence of a domestic transmission cycle that does not overlap with the sylvatic cycle, and highlight the need for efficient entomological control focused to this area.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Zingales B, Andrade SG, Briones MR, Campbell DA, Chiari E, Fernandes O, Guhl F, Lages-Silva E, Macedo AM, Machado CR, Miles MA, Romanha AJ, Sturm NR, Tibayrenc M, Schijman AG, Meeting SS, , 2009. A new consensus for Trypanosoma cruzi intraspecific nomenclature: second revision meeting recommends TcI to TcVI. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 104: 10511054.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Cuervo P, Cupolillo E, Segura I, Saravia N, Fernandes O, , 2002. Genetic diversity of Colombian sylvatic Trypanosoma cruzi isolates revealed by the ribosomal DNA. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 97: 877880.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Montilla MM, Guhl F, Jaramillo C, Nicholls S, Barnabe C, Bosseno MF, Breniere SF, , 2002. Isoenzyme clustering of Trypanosomatidae Colombian populations. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66: 394400. [Google Scholar]
  4. Triana O, Ortiz S, Dujardin JC, Solari A, , 2006. Trypanosoma cruzi: variability of stocks from Colombia determined by molecular karyotype and minicircle southern blot analysis. Exp Parasitol 113: 6266.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Zafra G, Mantilla JC, Valadares HM, Macedo AM, González CI, , 2008. Evidence of Trypanosoma cruzi II infection in Colombian chagasic patients. Parasitol Res 103: 731734.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Herrera C, Bargues MD, Fajardo A, Montilla M, Triana O, Vallejo GA, Guhl F, , 2007. Identifying four Trypanosoma cruzi I isolate haplotypes from different geographic regions in Colombia. Infect Genet Evol 7: 535539.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Falla A, Herrera C, Fajardo A, Montilla M, Vallejo GA, Guhl F, , 2009. Haplotype identification within Trypanosoma cruzi I in Colombian isolates from several reservoirs, vectors and humans. Acta Trop 110: 1521.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Moncayo A, Silveira AC, , 2009. Current epidemiological trends for chagas disease in Latin America and future challenges in epidemiology, surveillance and health policy. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 104 (Suppl 1): 1730. [Google Scholar]
  9. Agudelo LA, Dib JC, Rojas W, Triana-Chavez O, , 2005. Epidemiología de la enfermedad de chagas en una comunidad indígena de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Biomedica 25: 113.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Parra GJ, Restrepo-Isaza M, Restrepo BN, Domínguez J d D, , 2004. Estudio de la tripanosomiasis americana en dos poblados indígenas de la Sierra nevada de Santa Marta. CES Medicina 18: 4350. [Google Scholar]
  11. Rodríguez IB, Botero A, Mejía-Jaramillo AM, Marquez EJ, Ortiz S, Solari A, Triana-Chávez O, , 2009. Transmission dynamics of Trypanosoma cruzi determined by low-stringency single primer polymerase chain reaction and southern blot analyses in four indigenous communities of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 81: 396403. [Google Scholar]
  12. Dib J, Ariza K, Vélez I, Agudelo L, , 2000. Dispersion and distribution of triatomine species in the indian communities from the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta. Medicine IFfT, ed. XV International Congress for Ttropical Medicine and Malaria. Cartagena, Colombia, 84. [Google Scholar]
  13. Téllez-Meneses J, Mejía-Jaramillo AM, Triana-Chávez O, , 2008. Biological characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi stocks from domestic and sylvatic vectors in Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, Colombia. Acta Trop 108: 2634.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Ríos-Osorio LA, Crespo-Gonzáles JJ, Zapata-Tamayo MA, , 2012. Etnometodología para la comprensión y el manejo de la enfermedad de Chagas en las poblaciones indígenas Wiwa asentadas en la vertiente suroriental de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Saúde soc. São Paulo 21: 446457. [Google Scholar]
  15. Angulo VM, Esteban L, , 2011. Nueva trampa para la captura de triatominos en hábitats silvestres y peridomésticos. Biomedica 31: 264268.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Lent H, Wigodzinski P, , 1979. Revision of the Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) and their significance as vector of chagas disease. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 163: 123520. [Google Scholar]
  17. Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T, , 1989. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Second edition. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. [Google Scholar]
  18. Moser DR, Kirchhoff LV, Donelson JE, , 1989. Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi by DNA amplification using the polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 27: 14771482. [Google Scholar]
  19. Cummings KL, Tarleton RL, , 2003. Rapid quantitation of Trypanosoma cruzi in host tissue by real-time PCR. Mol Biochem Parasitol 129: 5359.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Cantillo-Barraza O, Gómez-Palacio A, Salazar D, Mejía-Jaramillo AM, Calle J, Triana O, , 2010. Distribución geográfica y ecoepidemiología de la fauna de triatominos (Reduviidae: Triatominae) en la Isla Margarita del departamento de Bolívar, Colombia. Biomedica 30: 382389.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Souto RP, Fernandes O, Macedo AM, Campbell DA, Zingales B, , 1996. DNA markers define two major phylogenetic lineages of Trypanosoma cruzi . Mol Biochem Parasitol 83: 141152.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Brisse S, Verhoef J, Tibayrenc M, , 2001. Characterization of large and small subunit rRNA and mini-exon genes further supports the distinction of six Trypanosoma cruzi lineages. Int J Parasitol 31: 12181226.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Boakye DA, Tang J, Truc P, Merriweather A, Unnasch TR, , 1999. Identification of bloodmeals in haematophagous diptera by cytochrome B heteroduplex analysis. Med Vet Entomol 13: 282287.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  24. Peña VH, Fernández GJ, Gómez-Palacio AM, Mejía-Jaramillo AM, Cantillo O, Triana-Chávez O, , 2012. High-resolution melting (HRM) of the cytochrome B gene: a powerful approach to identify blood-meal sources in chagas disease vectors. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1530.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  25. Guhl F, , 2000. Programas en la eliminación de la transmisión de la enfermedad de chagas en Colombia. Medicina (Bogotá) 22: 96104. [Google Scholar]
  26. Olifiers N, Gentile R, Fiszon JT, , 2005. Relation between small-mammal species composition and anthropic variables in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Braz J Biol 65: 495501.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  27. Vallvé SL, Rojo H, Wisnivesky-Colli C, , 1996. Urban ecology of Triatoma infestans in San Juan, Argentina. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 91: 405408.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Grijalva MJ, Escalante L, Paredes RA, Costales JA, Padilla A, Rowland EC, Aguilar HM, Racines J, , 2003. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the Amazon region of Ecuador. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69: 380385. [Google Scholar]
  29. Serrano O, Mendoza F, Suárez B, Soto A, , 2008. Seroepidemiology of chagas disease in two rural populations in the municipality of Costa de Oro, at Aragua State, northern Venezuela. Biomedica 28: 108115.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  30. Mantilla JC, Zafra GA, Macedo AM, González CI, , 2010. Mixed infection of Trypanosoma cruzi I and II in a Colombian cardiomyopathic patient. Hum Pathol 41: 610613.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  31. Devera R, Fernandes O, Coura JR, , 2003. Should Trypanosoma cruzi be called “cruzi” complex? A review of the parasite diversity and the potential of selecting population after in vitro culturing and mice infection. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 98: 112.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  32. Tomasini N, Lauthier JJ, Monje Rumi MM, Ragone PG, Alberti D'Amato AA, Pérez Brandan C, Cura CI, Schijman AG, Barnabé C, Tibayrenc M, Basombrío MA, Falla A, Herrera C, Guhl F, Diosque P, , 2011. Interest and limitations of Spliced Leader Intergenic Region sequences for analyzing Trypanosoma cruzi I phylogenetic diversity in the Argentinean Chaco. Infect Genet Evol 11: 300307.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  33. Herrera CP, Barnabé C, Brenière SF, , 2013. Complex evolutionary pathways of the intergenic region of the mini-exon gene in Trypanosoma cruzi TcI: a possible ancient origin in the Gran Chaco and lack of strict genetic structuration. Infect Genet Evol 16: 2737.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  34. Enger KS, Ordoñez R, Wilson ML, Ramsey JM, , 2004. Evaluation of risk factors for rural infestation by Triatoma pallidipennis (Hemiptera: Triatominae), a Mexican vector of chagas disease. J Med Entomol 41: 760767.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  35. Gurtler RE, Cecere MC, Rubel DN, Schweigmann NJ, , 1992. Determinants of the domiciliary density of Triatoma infestans, vector of chagas disease. Med Vet Entomol 6: 7583.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  36. Gurtler RE, Petersen RM, Cecere MC, Schweigmann NJ, Chuit R, Gualtieri JM, Wisnivesky-Colli C, , 1994. Chagas disease in north-west Argentina: risk of domestic reinfestation by Triatoma infestans after a single community-wide application of deltamethrin. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 88: 2730.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  37. Mott KE, Muniz TM, Lehman JS, Hoff R, Morrow RH, de Oliveira TS, Sherlock I, Draper CC, , 1978. House construction, triatomine distribution, and household distribution of seroreactivity to Trypanosoma cruzi in a rural community in northeast Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 27: 11161122. [Google Scholar]
  38. Walter A, Rego IP, Ferreira AJ, Rogier C, , 2005. Risk factors for reinvasion of human dwellings by sylvatic triatomines in northern Bahia State, Brazil. Cad Saude Publica 21: 974978.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  39. Campbell-Lendrum DH, Angulo VM, Esteban L, Tarazona Z, Parra GJ, Restrepo M, Restrepo BN, Guhl F, Pinto N, Aguilera G, Wilkinson P, Davies CR, , 2007. House-level risk factors for triatomine infestation in Colombia. Int J Epidemiol 36: 866872.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  40. Hoyos R, Pacheco L, Agudelo LA, Zafra G, Blanco P, Triana O, , 2007. Seroprevalence of chagas disease and associated risk factors in a population of Morroa, Sucre. Biomedica 27 (Suppl 1): 130136.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  41. Gaunt M, Miles M, , 2000. The ecotopes and evolution of triatomine bugs (triatominae) and their associated trypanosomes. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 95: 557565.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  42. Abad-Franch F, Palomeque FS, Aguilar HM, Miles MA, , 2005. Field ecology of sylvatic Rhodnius populations (Heteroptera, Triatominae): risk factors for palm tree infestation in western Ecuador. Trop Med Int Health 10: 12581266.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  43. Feliciangeli MD, Sánchez-Martín MJ, Suárez B, Marrero R, Torrellas A, Bravo A, Medina M, Martínez C, Hernandez M, Duque N, Toyo J, Rangel R, , 2007. Risk factors for Trypanosoma cruzi human infection in Barinas State, Venezuela. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 915921. [Google Scholar]
  44. Feliciangeli MD, Sanchez-Martin M, Marrero R, Davies C, Dujardin JP, , 2007. Morphometric evidence for a possible role of Rhodnius prolixus from palm trees in house re-infestation in the State of Barinas (Venezuela). Acta Trop 101: 169177.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  45. Pinto N, Marin D, Herrera C, Vallejo G, Naranjo J, Guhl F, , 2005. Comprobación del ciclo selvático de Rhodnius prolixus Stål en reductos de Attalea butyracea en el departamento de Casanare. Biomedica 25: 159. [Google Scholar]
  46. Guhl F, Pinto N, Aguilera G, , 2009. Sylvatic triatominae: a new challenge in vector control transmission. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 104 (Suppl 1): 7175.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 21 Feb 2014
  • Accepted : 23 Aug 2014
  • Published online : 03 Dec 2014

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error