Volume 91, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Vaccinations against the encephalitic alphaviruses (western, eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus) are of significant interest to biological defense, public health, and agricultural communities alike. Although vaccines licensed for veterinary applications are used in the Western Hemisphere and attenuated or inactivated viruses have been used under Investigational New Drug status to protect at-risk personnel, there are currently no licensed vaccines for use in humans. Here, we will discuss the need for a trivalent vaccine that can protect humans against all three viruses, recent progress to such a vaccine, and a strategy to continue development to Food and Drug Administration licensure.


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  • Received : 22 Jan 2014
  • Accepted : 02 Apr 2014

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