Volume 91, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



spp. isolated from patients during a multiyear outbreak in Thailand were genotyped using multilocus sequence typing and a majority were identified as ST34, especially in earlier years. We tested whether ST34 isolates were better adapted to survive in various pH levels, temperatures, and water sources. Motility and growth were monitored over a 12-week period. Early year ST34 isolates did not appear to have a significant fitness advantage over non-ST34, however, this may have been because a majority of the isolates survived to the termination of the study, with the exception being at high temperature (37°C) and/or basic pH (8.65). Failure to detect a significant fitness advantage of ST34 may be a result of the length of the study or the small sample size. Lengthening the study and looking at virulence and maintenance in the host could yield additional information about this outbreak.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Levett PN, , 2001. Leptospirosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 14: 296326.[Crossref]
  2. Bharti AR, Nally JE, Ricaldi JN, Matthias MA, Diaz MM, Lovett MA, Levett PN, Gilman RH, Willig MR, Gotuzzo E, Vinetz JM, , 2003. Leptospirosis: a zoonotic disease of global importance. Lancet Infect Dis 3: 757771.[Crossref]
  3. Thaipadungpanit J, Wuthiekanun V, Chierakul W, Smythe LD, Petkanchanapong W, Limpaiboon R, Apiwatanaporn A, Slack AT, Suputtamongkol Y, White NJ, Feil EJ, Day NP, Peacock SJ, , 2007. A dominant clone of Leptospira interrogans associated with an outbreak of human leptospirosis in Thailand. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 1: e56.[Crossref]
  4. Tangkanakul W, Smits HL, Jatanasen S, Ashford DA, , 2005. Leptospirosis: an emerging health problem in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 36: 281288.
  5. Johnson RC, Harris VG, , 1967. Differentiation of pathogenic and saprophytic letospires. I. Growth at low temperatures. J Bacteriol 94: 2731.
  6. Turner LH, , 1970. Leptospirosis. 3. Maintenance, isolation and demonstration of leptospires. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 64: 623646.[Crossref]
  7. Trueba G, Zapata S, Madrid K, Cullen P, Haake D, , 2004. Cell aggregation: a mechanism of pathogenic Leptospira to survive in fresh water. Int Microbiol 7: 3540.
  8. Goris MG, Hartskeerl RA, , 2014. Leptospirosis serodiagnosis by the microscopic agglutination test. Curr Protoc Microbiol 32: 12E 5 112E 5 18.[Crossref]
  9. Cole JR, Jr Sulzer CR, Pursell AR, , 1973. Improved microtechnique for the leptospiral microscopic agglutination test. Appl Microbiol 25: 976980.
  10. Ellinghausen HC, Jr, 1973. Growth temperatures, virulence, survival, and nutrition of leptospires. J Med Microbiol 6: 487497.[Crossref]
  11. Schreier S, Triampo W, Doungchawee G, Triampo D, Chadsuthi S, , 2009. Leptospirosis research: fast, easy and reliable enumeration of mobile leptospires. Biol Res 42: 512.[Crossref]
  12. Stevens JP, , 2009. Applied Multivariate Statistics for the Social Sciences. Fifth edition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  13. Klein JP, Moeschberger ML, , 2003. Survival Analysis: Techniques for Censored and Truncated Data. Second edition. New York: Springer.
  14. Westfall PH, Tobias RD, Rom D, Wolfinger RD, Hochberg Y, , 1999. Multiple Comparisons and Multiple Tests Using the SAS System. Cary, NC: SAS Institute.
  15. Chang SL, Buckingham M, Taylor MP, , 1948. Studies on Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae; survival in water and sewage; destruction in water by halogen compounds, synthetic detergents, and heat. J Infect Dis 82: 256266.[Crossref]
  16. Kirschner L, Maguire T, , 1957. Survival of Leptospira outside their hosts. N Z Med J 56: 385391.
  17. Okazaki W, Ringen LM, , 1957. Some effects of various environmental conditions on the survival of Leptospira pomona . Am J Vet Res 18: 219223.
  18. Smith CE, Turner LH, , 1961. The effect of pH on the survival of leptospires in water. Bull World Health Organ 24: 3543.
  19. Parker J, Walker M, , 2011. Survival of a pathogenic Leptospira serovar in response to combined in vitro pH and temperature stresses. Vet Microbiol 152: 146150.[Crossref]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 17 Dec 2013
  • Accepted : 17 Jul 2014

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error