Volume 90, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Toxocariasis is a preventable parasitic disease that is caused by the dog and cat roundworms and , respectively. Humans become infected when they accidently ingest infectious eggs commonly found in contaminated soil; children are most often affected. Clinical manifestations of infection in humans include ocular toxocariasis and visceral toxocariasis. Although infection with can cause devastating disease, the burden of toxocariasis in the United States population remains unknown. In addition, risk factors for acquiring infection need to be better defined, and research needs to be conducted to better understand the pathophysiology and clinical course of toxocariasis. Development of diagnostic tests would enable clinicians to detect active infection, and determination of optimal drug regiments would ensure patients were appropriately treated. Addressing these public health gaps is necessary to understand and address the impact of toxocariasis in the United States.

[open-access] This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene's Re-use License which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Hotez PJ, Wilkins PP, , 2009. Toxocariasis: America's most common neglected infection of poverty and a helminthiasis of global importance. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3: e400.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Hotez PJ, , 2008. Neglected infections of poverty in the United States of America. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e256.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Glickman LT, Schantz PM, , 1981. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of zoonotic toxocariasis. Epidemiol Rev 3: 230250.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Marx C, Lin J, Masruha MR, Rodrigues MG, da Rocha AJ, Vilanova LCP, Gabbai AA, , 2007. Toxocariasis of the CNS simulating acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Neurology 69: 806807.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Hotez PJ, , 1993. Visceral and ocular larva migrans. Semin Neurol 13: 175179.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Keller M, Pavia AT, Byington CL, , 2008. Possible intrafamilial transmission of Toxocara causing eosinophilic meningitis in an infant. Pediatr Infect Dis J 27: 849850.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Vargo TA, Singer DB, Gillatte PC, Fernback DJ, , 1977. Myocarditis due to visceral larva migrans. J Pediatr 90: 322323.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Matsuki Y, Fujii T, Nakamura-Uchiyama F, Hiromatsu K, Nawa Y, Hayashi T, Ohtomi S, , 2007. Toxocariasis presenting with multiple effusions in the pericardial space, thoracic cavity, and Morrison's pouch. Intern Med 46: 913914.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Smith HV, Lewis JW, Maizels RM, , 1993. Antibody reactivity in human toxocariasis. , eds. Toxocara and Toxocariasis: Clinical, Epidemiological, and Molecular Perspectives. London: Institute of Biology and the British Society for Parasitology, 91109. [Google Scholar]
  10. Drugs for Parasitic Infections, 2010. The Medical Letter. New Rochelle, NY: The Medical Letter, Inc., 61. [Google Scholar]
  11. Won KY, Kruszon-Moran D, Schantz PM, Jones JL, , 2008. National seroprevalence and risk factors for zoonotic Toxocara spp. infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 79: 552557. [Google Scholar]
  12. Magnaval JF, Glickman LT, Dorchies P, Morassin B, , 2001. Highlights of human toxocariasis. Korean J Parasitol 39: 111.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Stewart J, Cubillan LD, Cunningham E, , 2005. Prevalence, clinical features, and causes of vision loss among patients with ocular toxocariasis. Retina 25: 10051013.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Schantz PM, Weis PE, Pollard ZF, White MC, , 1980. Risk factors for toxocaral ocular larva migrans: a case-control study. Am J Public Health 70: 12691272.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Congdon P, Lloyd P, , 2011. Toxocara infection in the United States: the relevance of poverty, geography and demography as risk factors, and implications for estimating county prevalence. Int J Public Health 56: 1524.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Jones JL, Kruszon-Moran D, Won K, Wilson M, Schantz PM, , 2008. Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. co-infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78: 3539. [Google Scholar]
  17. Ehrard T, Kernbaum S, , 1979. Toxocara canis et toxocarose humaine. Bull Inst Pasteur 77: 225287. [Google Scholar]
  18. Rugiero E, Cabera ME, Ducach G, Noemi I, Viovy A, , 1995. Systemic toxocariasis in the adult patient. Rev Med Chil 40: 10971099. [Google Scholar]
  19. Khodasevich LS, Leont'ev VIa, Ladygina AS, Monastyrev KB, , 1988. Visceral toxocariasis. Arkh Patol 60: 5455. [Google Scholar]
  20. Boschetti A, Kasznica J, , 1995. Visceral larva migrans induced eosinophilic cardiac pseudotumor: a cause of sudden death in a child. J Forensic Sci 40: 10971099.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Marmor M, Glickman L, Shofer F, Faich LA, Rosenberg C, Cornblatt B, Friedman S, , 1987. Toxocara canis infection of children: epidemiologic and neuropsychologic findings. Am J Public Health 77: 554559.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Ellis GS, Jr Pakalnis VA, Worley G, Green JA, Frothingham TE, Sturner RA, Walls K, , 1986. Toxocara canis infestation. Clinical and epidemiological associations with seropositivity in kindergarten children. Ophthalmology 93: 10321037.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Walsh MG, , 2011. Toxocara infection and diminished lung function in a nationally representative sample from the United States population. Int J Parasitol 41: 243247.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  24. Sharghi N, Schantz PM, Caramico L, Ballas K, Teague BA, Hotez PJ, , 2001. Environmental exposure to Toxocara as a possible risk factor for asthma: a clinic-based case-control study. Clin Infect Dis 32: E111E116.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  25. Maetz HM, Kleinstein RN, Federico D, Wayne D, , 1987. Estimated prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis in Alabama. J Infect Dis 156: 414.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Woodhall D, Starr MC, Montgomery SP, Jones JL, Lum F, Read RW, Moorthy RS, , 2012. Ocular toxocariasis: epidemiologic, anatomic, and therapeutic variations based on survey of ophthalmic subspecialists. Ophthalmology 119: 12111217.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  27. Surgan MH, Colgan KB, Kennett SI, Paffman JV, , 1980. A survey of canine toxocariasis and toxocaral soil contamination in Essex County, New Jersey. Am J Public Health 70: 12071208.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Dada BJ, Lindquist WD, , 1979. Prevalence of Toxocara spp. eggs in some public grounds and highway rest areas in Kansas. J Helminthol 53: 145146.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  29. Companion Animal Parasite Council, 2013. Parasite Prevalence Maps. Available at: http://ww.capvet.org/parasite-prevalence-maps. Accessed January 8, 2014. [Google Scholar]
  30. Little SE, Johnson EM, Lewis D, Jaklitsch RP, Payton ME, Blagburn BL, Bowman DD, Moroff S, Tams T, Rich L, Aucoin D, , 2009. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in pet dogs in the United States. Vet Parasitol 166: 144152.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  31. Lucio-Forster A, Bowman DD, , 2011. Prevalence of fecal-borne parasites detected by centrifugal flotation in feline samples from two shelters in upstate New York. J Feline Med Surg 13: 300303.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  32. Traversa D, , 2012. Pet roundworms and hookworms: a continuing need for global worming. Parasit Vectors 10: 91.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  • Received : 10 Dec 2013
  • Accepted : 09 Jan 2014
  • Published online : 07 May 2014

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error