Volume 90, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Bovine vaccinia (BV) is an emerging zoonosis caused by the (VACV), genus (OPV), family. In general, human cases are related to direct contact with sick cattle but there is a lack of information about human-to-human transmission of VACV during BV outbreaks. In this study, we epidemiologically and molecularly show a case of VACV transmission between humans in São Francisco de Itabapoana County, Rio de Janeiro state. Our group collected samples from the patients, a 49-year-old patient and his son. Our results showed that patients had developed anti-OPV IgG or IgM antibodies and presented neutralizing antibodies against OPV. The VACV isolates displayed high identity (99.9%) and were grouped in the same phylogenetic tree branch. Our data indicate that human-to-human VACV transmission occurred during a BV outbreak, raising new questions about the risk factors of the VACV transmission chain.


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  • Received : 25 Oct 2013
  • Accepted : 31 Jan 2014

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