Volume 90, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Bovine vaccinia (BV) is an emerging zoonosis caused by the (VACV), genus (OPV), family. In general, human cases are related to direct contact with sick cattle but there is a lack of information about human-to-human transmission of VACV during BV outbreaks. In this study, we epidemiologically and molecularly show a case of VACV transmission between humans in São Francisco de Itabapoana County, Rio de Janeiro state. Our group collected samples from the patients, a 49-year-old patient and his son. Our results showed that patients had developed anti-OPV IgG or IgM antibodies and presented neutralizing antibodies against OPV. The VACV isolates displayed high identity (99.9%) and were grouped in the same phylogenetic tree branch. Our data indicate that human-to-human VACV transmission occurred during a BV outbreak, raising new questions about the risk factors of the VACV transmission chain.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Damon I, Knipe DM, Howley PM, , 2007. Poxviridae and their replication. In: Fields Virology. , eds. Fifth edition. New York: Raven Press, 20792081. [Google Scholar]
  2. Kroon EG, Mota BE, Abrahão JS, da Fonseca FG, de Souza Trindade G, , 2011. Zoonotic Brazilian Vaccinia virus: from field to therapy. Antiviral Res 92: 150163.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Trindade GS, da Fonseca FG, Marques JT, Nogueira ML, Mendes LC, Borges AS, Peiró JR, Pituco EM, Bonjardim CA, Ferreira PC, Kroon EG, , 2003. Araçatuba virus: a Vaccinia-like virus associated with infection in humans and cattle. Emerg Infect Dis 9: 155160.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Damaso CR, Esposito JJ, Condit RC, Moussatche N, , 2000. An emergent poxvirus from humans and cattle in Rio de Janeiro State: Cantagalo virus may derive from Brazilian smallpox vaccine. Virology 277: 439449.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Drumond BP, Leite JA, da Fonseca FG, Bonjardim CA, Ferreira PC, Kroon EG, , 2008. Brazilian Vaccinia virus strains are genetically divergent and differ from the Lister vaccine strain. Microbes Infect 10: 185197.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Silva-Fernandes AT, Travassos CE, Ferreira JM, Abrahao JS, Rocha ES, Ferreira FV, dos Santos JR, Bonjardim CA, Ferreira PC, Kroon EG, , 2009. Natural human infections with Vaccinia virus during bovine vaccinia outbreaks. J Clin Virol 44: 308313.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Trindade GS, Guedes MI, Drumond BP, Mota BE, Abrahão JS, Lobato ZI, Gomes JA, Oliveira RC, Nogueira ML, Kroon EG, Fonseca FG, , 2009. Zoonotic Vaccinia virus: clinical and immunological characteristics in a naturally infected patient. Clin Infect Dis 48: 3740.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Abrahão JS, Guedes MI, Trindade GS, Fonseca FG, Campos RK, Mota BE, Lobato ZI, Fernandes AT, Rodrigues GO, Lima LS, Ferreira PC, Bonjardim CA, Kroon EG, , 2009. One more piece in the VACV ecological puzzle: could peridomestic rodents be the link between wildlife and bovine Vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil? PLoS ONE 4: 17.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Overman JR, Tamm I, , 1957. Multiplication of Vaccinia virus in the chorioallantoic membrane in vitro . Virology 3: 173184.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Sambrook E, Fritsch F, Maniatis T, , 1989. Molecular Cloning. Fifth edition. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Press. [Google Scholar]
  11. Ropp SL, Jin Q, Knight JC, Massung RF, Esposito JJ, , 1995. PCR strategy for identification and differentiation of small pox and other orthopoxviruses. J Clin Microbiol 33: 20692076. [Google Scholar]
  12. Sanger F, Air GM, Barrell BG, Brown NL, Coulson AR, Fiddes CA, Hutchison CA, Slocombe PM, Smith M, , 1977. Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA. Nature 265: 687695.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Reynolds MG, Yorita KL, Kuehnert MJ, Davidson WB, Huhn GD, Holman RC, Damon IK, , 2006. Clinical manifestations of human monkey pox influenced by route of infection. J Infect Dis 194: 773780.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Schatzmayr HG, Lemos ER, Mazur C, Schubach A, Majerowicz S, Rozental T, Schubach TM, Bustamante MC, Barth OM, , 2000. Detection of poxvirus in cattle associated with human cases in the State of Rio de Janeiro: preliminary report. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 65: 625627.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Lobato ZI, Trindade GS, Frois MC, Ribeiro EB, Dias GR, Teixeira BM, Lima FA, Almeida GM, Kroon EG, , 2005. Surto de varíola bovina causada pelo vírus Vaccinia na região da Zona da mata mineira. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 57: 423429.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Batista VH, Scremin J, Aguiar LM, Schatzmayr HG, , 2009. Vulvar infection and possible human-to-human transmission of bovine poxvirus disease. Virus Rev Res 14: 110.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Vora S, Damon I, Fulginiti V, Weber SG, Kahana M, Stein SL, Gerber SI, Garcia-Houchins S, Lederman E, Hruby D, Collins L, Scott D, Thompson K, Barson JV, Regnery R, Hughes C, Daum RS, Li Y, Zhao H, Smith S, Braden Z, Karem K, Olson V, Davidson W, Trindade G, Bolken T, Jordan R, Tien D, Marcinak J, , 2008. Severe eczema vaccinatum in a household contact of a smallpox vaccine. Clin Infect Dis 46: 15551561.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Wolff HL, Croon JJ, , 1968. The survival of smallpox virus (variola minor) in natural circumstances. Bull World Health Organ 38: 492493. [Google Scholar]
  19. Essbauer S, Meyer H, Porsch-Ozcürümez M, Pfeffer M, , 2007. Long-lasting stability of Vaccinia virus (orthopoxvirus) in food and environmental samples. Zoonoses Public Health 54: 118124.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 25 Oct 2013
  • Accepted : 31 Jan 2014
  • Published online : 04 Jun 2014

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error