Volume 92, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Epidemic cholera was reported in Haiti in 2010, with no information available on the occurrence or geographic distribution of toxigenic in Haitian waters. In a series of field visits conducted in Haiti between 2011 and 2013, water and plankton samples were collected at 19 sites. was detected using culture, polymerase chain reaction, and direct viable count methods (DFA-DVC). Cholera toxin genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction in broth enrichments of samples collected in all visits except March 2012. Toxigenic was isolated from river water in 2011 and 2013. Whole genome sequencing revealed that these isolates were a match to the outbreak strain. The DFA-DVC tests were positive for O1 in plankton samples collected from multiple sites. Results of this survey show that toxigenic could be recovered from surface waters in Haiti more than 2 years after the onset of the epidemic.


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  • Received : 17 Oct 2013
  • Accepted : 10 Sep 2014
  • Published online : 07 Jan 2015

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