Volume 90, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



To understand the hepatitis E virus (HEV)-pollution status in the environment in the Philippines, a total of 12 water samples were collected from rivers in Manila City for detection of HEV RNA. Three of 12 samples were positive for HEV RNA indicating that HEV is circulating in the Philippines. Phylogenetic analysis classified all of the HEV sequences into genotype 3.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Purcell RH, Emerson SU, , 2008. Hepatitis E: an emerging awareness of an old disease. J Hepatol 48: 494503.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Meng XJ, Anderson DA, Arankalle VA, Emerson SU, Harrison TJ, Jameel S, Okamoto H, King AM, Carstens MJ, Lefkowitz EJ, , 2012. Hepeviridae. , eds. Virus Taxonomy. Ninth Report of the ICTV. London: Elsevier/Academic Press, 10211028. [Google Scholar]
  3. Emerson SU, Purcell RH, , 2003. Hepatitis E virus. Rev Med Virol 13: 145154.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Balayan MS, Andjaparidze AG, Savinskaya SS, Ketiladze ES, Braginsky DM, Savinov AP, Poleschuk VF, , 1983. Evidence for a virus in non-A, non-B hepatitis transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Intervirology 20: 2331.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Navaneethan U, Al Mohajer M, Shata MT, , 2008. Hepatitis E and pregnancy: understanding the pathogenesis. Liver Int 28: 11901199.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Tei S, Kitajima N, Takahashi K, Mishiro S, , 2003. Zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus from deer to human beings. Lancet 362: 371373.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Li TC, Chijiwa K, Sera N, Ishibashi T, Etoh Y, Shinohara Y, Kurata Y, Ishida M, Sakamoto S, Takeda N, Miyamura T, , 2005. Hepatitis E virus transmission from wild boar meat. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 19581960.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Colson P, Borentain P, Queyriaux B, Kaba M, Moal V, Gallian P, Heyries L, Raoult D, Gerolami R, , 2010. Pig liver sausage as a source of hepatitis E virus transmission to humans. J Infect Dis 202: 825834.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Zhao C, Ma Z, Harrison TJ, Feng R, Zhang C, Qiao Z, Fan J, Ma H, Li M, Song A, Wang Y, , 2009. A novel genotype of hepatitis E virus prevalent among farmed rabbits in China. J Med Virol 81: 13711379.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Yamamoto H, Suzuki J, Matsuda A, Ishida T, Ami Y, Suzaki Y, Adachi I, Wakita T, Takeda N, Li TC, , 2012. Hepatitis E virus outbreak in monkey facility, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 20322034.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Nakamura M, Takahashi K, Taira K, Taira M, Ohno A, Sakugawa H, Arai M, Mishiro S, , 2006. Hepatitis E virus infection in wild mongooses of Okinawa, Japan: demonstration of anti-HEV antibodies and a full-genome nucleotide sequence. Hepatol Res 34: 137140.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Meng XJ, , 2010. Hepatitis E virus: animal reservoirs and zoonotic risk. Vet Microbiol 140: 256265.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Arankalle VA, Tsarev SA, Chadha MS, Alling DW, Emerson SU, Banerjee K, Purcell RH, , 1995. Age-specific prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A and E viruses in Pune, India, 1982 and 1992. J Infect Dis 171: 447450.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Chandra V, Taneja S, Kalia M, Jameel S, , 2008. Molecular biology and pathogenesis of hepatitis E virus. J Biosci 33: 451464.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Kamar N, Bendall R, Legrand-Abravanel F, Xia NS, Ijaz S, Izopet J, Dalton HR, , 2012. Hepatitis E. Lancet 379: 24772488.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Tao Z, Song Y, Wang H, Zhang Y, Yoshida H, Ji S, Xu A, Song L, Liu Y, Cui N, Ji F, Li Y, Chen P, Xu W, , 2012. Intercity spread of echovirus 6 in Shandong Province, China: application of environmental surveillance in tracing circulating enteroviruses. Appl Environ Microbiol 78: 69466953.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Li TC, Ochiai S, Ishiko H, Wakita T, Miyamura T, Takeda N, , 2012. A retrospective study on imported hepatitis E in Japan. Travel Med Infect Dis 10: 8085.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Lu L, Li C, Hagedorn CH, , 2006. Phylogenetic analysis of global hepatitis E virus sequences: genetic diversity, subtypes and zoonosis. Rev Med Virol 16: 536.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Meng XJ, Purcell RH, Halbur PG, Lehman JR, Webb DM, Tsareva TS, Haynes JS, Thacker BJ, Emerson SU, , 1997. A novel virus in swine is closely related to the human hepatitis E virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 98609865.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Li TC, Saito M, Ogura G, Ishibashi O, Miyamura T, Takeda N, , 2006. Serologic evidence for hepatitis E virus infection in mongoose. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74: 932936. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 29 Sep 2013
  • Accepted : 14 Jan 2014
  • Published online : 02 Apr 2014

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error