1921
Volume 90, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Dracunculiasis was rediscovered in Chad in 2010 after an apparent absence of 10 years. In April 2012 active village-based surveillance was initiated to determine where, when, and how transmission of the disease was occurring, and to implement interventions to interrupt it. The current epidemiologic pattern of the disease in Chad is unlike that seen previously in Chad or other endemic countries, i.e., no clustering of cases by village or association with a common water source, the average number of worms per person was small, and a large number of dogs were found to be infected. Molecular sequencing suggests these infections were all caused by . It appears that the infection in dogs is serving as the major driving force sustaining transmission in Chad, that an aberrant life cycle involving a paratenic host common to people and dogs is occurring, and that the cases in humans are sporadic and incidental.

[open-access] This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene's Re-use License which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0554
2014-01-08
2017-11-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/90/1/61.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0554&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Hopkins DR, Ruiz-Tiben E, Weiss A, Withers P, Jr Eberhard M, Roy S, , 2013. Dracunculiasis eradication: and now South Sudan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89: 510.[Crossref]
  2. Muller R, , 1971. Dracunculus and dracunculiasis. Adv Parasitol 9: 73151.[Crossref]
  3. World Health Organization, 1998. Dracunculiasis eradication in Uzbekistan: country report. WHO/CDS/CEE/DRA/99.9. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  4. Cairncross S, Muller R, Zagaria N, , 2002. Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) and the eradication initiative. Clin Microbiol Rev 15: 223246.[Crossref]
  5. Anderson RC, , 2000. Chapter 6.2: The Superfamily Dracunculoidea. Nematode Parasites of Vertebrates: Their Development and Transmission. Second edition. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.[Crossref]
  6. Bimi L, Freeman AR, Eberhard ML, Ruiz-Tiben E, Pieniazek NJ, , 2005. Differentiating Dracunculus medinensis from D. insignis, by sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 99: 511517.[Crossref]
  7. Elasser SC, Floyd R, Hebert PDN, Albrecht I, , 2009. Species identification of North American guinea worms (Nematoda: Dracunculus) with DNA barcoding. Mol Ecol Resources 9: 707712.[Crossref]
  8. Laing R, Kikuchi T, Martinelli A, Tsai IJ, Beech RN, Redman E, Holroyd N, Bartley DJ, Beasley H, Britton C, Curran D, Devaney E, Gilabert A, Hunt M, Jackson F, Johnston S, Kryukov I, Li K, Morrison AA, Reid AJ, Sargison N, Saunders G, Wasmuth JD, Wolstenholme A, Berriman M, Gilleard JS, Cotton JA, , 2013. The genome and transcriptome of Haemonchus contortus, a key model parasite for drug and vaccine discovery. Genome Biol 14: R88.[Crossref]
  9. Kozarewa I, Ning Z, Quail MA, Sanders MJ, Berriman M, Turner DJ, , 2009. Amplification-free Illumina sequencing-library preparation facilitates improved mapping and assembly of (G + C)-biased genomes. Nat Methods 6: 291295.[Crossref]
  10. McKenna A, Hanna M, Banks E, Sivachenko A, Cibulskis K, Kernytsky A, Garimella K, Altshuler D, Gabriel S, Daly M, DePristo MA, , 2010. The Genome Analysis Toolkit: a MapReduce framework for analyzing next-generation DNA sequencing data. Genome Res 20: 12971303.[Crossref]
  11. DePristo M, Banks E, Poplin R, Garimella K, Maguire J, Hartl C, Philippakis A, del Angel G, Rivas MA, Hanna M, McKenna A, Fennell T, Kernytsky A, Sivachenko A, Cibulskis K, Gabriel S, Altshuler D, Daly M, , 2011. A framework for variation discovery and genotyping using next-generation DNA sequencing data. Nat Genet 43: 491498.[Crossref]
  12. Purcell S, Neale B, Todd-Brown K, Thomas L, Ferreira MA, Bender D, Maller J, Sklar P, de Bakker PI, Daly MJ, Sham PC, , 2007. PLINK: a toolset for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analysis. Am J Hum Genet 81: 559575.[Crossref]
  13. Wijova M, Moravec F, Jorak A, Modry D, Lukes J, , 2005. Phylogenetic position of Dracunculus medinensis and some related nematodes inferred from 18S rRNA. Parasitol Res 96: 133135.[Crossref]
  14. Wijova A, Moravec F, Horak A, Lukes J, , 2006. Evolutionary relationships of Spirurina (Nematoda: Chromadorea: Rhabditida) with special emphasis on dracunculoid nematodes inferred from SSU rRNA gene sequences. Int J Parasitol 36: 10671075.[Crossref]
  15. Hashikura T, , 1927. One case of Filaria medinensis in Korea. Jap Med World 7: 145146.
  16. Kobayashi A, Kataruta A, Hamada A, Suzuki T, Hataba Y, Tashiro N, Yoshida A, , 1986. Human case of dracunculiasis in Japan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 35: 159161.
  17. Wang Z, Jisuan D, Wang X, , 1995. Dracunculiasis discovered for the first time in China. Chin J Zoon 11: 1517.
  18. Crichton VFJ, Beverley-Burton M, , 1977. Observations on the seasonal prevalence, pathology and transmission of Dracunculus insignis (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) in the raccoon (Procyon lotor (L) in Ontario. J Wildl Dis 13: 273280.[Crossref]
  19. Eberhard ML, Brandt FH, , 1995. The role of tadpoles and frogs as paratenic hosts in the life cycle of Dracunculus insignis (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea). J Parasitol 8: 792793.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0554
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0554
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 25 Sep 2013
  • Accepted : 28 Oct 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error