1921
Volume 90, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

We analyzed characteristics of humanitarian service workers (HSWs) seen pre-travel at Global TravEpiNet (GTEN) practices during 2009–2011. Of 23,264 travelers, 3,663 (16%) travelers were classified as HSWs. Among HSWs, 1,269 (35%) travelers were medical workers, 1,298 (35%) travelers were non-medical service workers, and 990 (27%) travelers were missionaries. Median age was 29 years, and 63% of travelers were female. Almost one-half (49%) traveled to 1 of 10 countries; the most frequent destinations were Haiti (14%), Honduras (8%), and Kenya (6%). Over 90% of travelers were vaccinated for or considered immune to hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever. However, for hepatitis B, 292 (29%) of 990 missionaries, 228 (18%) of 1,298 non-medical service workers, and 76 (6%) of 1,269 medical workers were not vaccinated or considered immune. Of HSWs traveling to Haiti during 2010, 5% of travelers did not receive malaria chemoprophylaxis. Coordinated efforts from HSWs, HSW agencies, and clinicians could reduce vaccine coverage gaps and improve use of malaria chemoprophylaxis.

[open-access] This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene's Re-use License which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0479
2014-03-05
2017-11-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/90/3/553.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0479&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Active Learning Network for Accountability and Performance in Humanitarian Action, 2010. The State of the Humanitarian System: Assessing Performance and Progress: A Pilot Study. Available at: www.alnap.org. Accessed December 10, 2011.
  2. Dahlgren AL, Deroo L, Avril J, Bise G, Loutan L, , 2009. Health risks and risk-taking behaviors among International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) expatriates returning from humanitarian missions. J Travel Med 16: 382390.[Crossref]
  3. Goesch JN, Simons de Fanti A, Bechet S, Consigny PH, , 2010. Comparison of knowledge on travel related health risks and their prevention among humanitarian aid workers and other travellers consulting at the Institut Pasteur travel clinic in Paris, France. Travel Med Infect Dis 8: 364372.[Crossref]
  4. Chen LH, Wilson ME, Davis X, Loutan L, Schwartz E, Keystone J, Hale D, Lim PL, McCarthy A, Gkrania-Klotsas E, Schlagenhauf P, GeoSentinel Surveillance Network; , 2009. Illness in long-term travelers visiting GeoSentinel clinics. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 17731782.[Crossref]
  5. Callahan MV, Hamer DH, , 2005. On the medical edge: preparation of expatriates, refugee and disaster relief workers, and Peace Corps volunteers. Infect Dis Clin North Am 19: 85101.[Crossref]
  6. Kortepeter MG, Seaworth BJ, Tasker SA, Burgess TH, Coldren RL, Aronson NE, , 2010. Health care workers and researchers traveling to developing-world clinical settings: disease transmission risk and mitigation. Clin Infect Dis 51: 12981305.[Crossref]
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010. Dengue fever among U.S. travelers returning from the Dominican Republic—Minnesota and Iowa, 2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 59: 654656.
  8. Esposito DH, Han PV, Kozarsky PE, Walker PF, Gkrania-Klotsas E, Barnett ED, Libman M, McCarthy AE, Field V, Connor BA, Schwartz E, MacDonald S, Sotir MJ, GeoSentinel Surveillance Network; , 2012. Characteristics and spectrum of disease among ill returned travelers from pre- and post-earthquake Haiti: the GeoSentinel experience. Am J Trop Med Hyg 86: 2328.[Crossref]
  9. Lange WR, Kreider SD, Kaczaniuk MA, Snyder FR, , 1987. Missionary health: the great omission. Am J Prev Med 3: 332338.
  10. Sharp TM, Pillai P, Hunsperger E, Santiago GA, Anderson T, Vap T, Collinson J, Buss BF, Safranek TJ, Sotir MJ, Jentes ES, Munoz-Jordan JL, Arguello DF, , 2012. A cluster of dengue cases in American missionaries returning from Haiti, 2010. Am J Trop Med Hyg 86: 1622.[Crossref]
  11. Flores-Figueroa J, Okhuysen PC, von Sonnenburg F, DuPont HL, Libman MD, Keystone JS, Hale DC, Burchard G, Han PV, Wilder-Smith A, Freedman DO, GeoSentinel Surveillance Network; , 2011. Patterns of illness in travelers visiting Mexico and Central America: the GeoSentinel experience. Clin Infect Dis 53: 523531.[Crossref]
  12. LaRocque RC, Rao SR, Tsibris A, Lawton T, Barry MA, Marano N, Brunette G, Yanni E, Ryan ET, , 2010. Pre-travel health advice-seeking behavior among US international travelers departing from Boston Logan International Airport. J Travel Med 17: 387391.[Crossref]
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2010. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.
  14. Larocque RC, Rao SR, Lee J, Ansdell V, Yates JA, Schwartz BS, Knouse M, Cahill J, Hagmann S, Vinetz J, Connor BA, Goad JA, Oladele A, Alvarez S, Stauffer W, Walker P, Kozarsky P, Franco-Paredes C, Dismukes R, Rosen J, Hynes NA, Jacquerioz F, McLellan S, Hale D, Sofarelli T, Schoenfeld D, Marano N, Brunette G, Jentes ES, Yanni E, Sotir MJ, Ryan ET, the Global TravEpiNet C; , 2012. Global TravEpiNet: a national consortium of clinics providing care to international travelers—analysis of demographic characteristics, travel destinations, and pretravel healthcare of high-risk US international travelers, 2009–2011. Clin Infect Dis 54: 455462.[Crossref]
  15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012. CDC Health Information for International Travel. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.
  16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013. CDC Travelers' Health. Available at: http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/. Accessed March 5, 2013.
  17. Dolan SB, Jentes ES, Sotir MJ, Han P, Blanton JD, Rao SR, LaRocque RC, Ryan ET, and the Global Travepinet Consortium, , 2013. Pre-exposure rabies vaccination among US international travelers: findings from the global TravEpiNet Consortium. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis [epub ahead of print December 20, 2013].
  18. Gershman M, Schroeder B, Jentes ES, Marano N, Brunette G, , 2009. Yellow fever vaccine requirements and recommendations, by country. , ed. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2010. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.
  19. Gershman M, Jentes ES, Sommers T, Staples J, Tan KR, Arguin PM, Steele SF, Brunette G, , 2012. Yellow fever and malaria information, by country. , ed. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2012. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.
  20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Recommendations. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/ACIP-list.htm#hepb. Accessed September 14, 2011.
  21. Smalligan RD, Lange WR, Frame JD, Yarbough PO, Frankenfield DL, Hyams KC, , 1995. The risk of viral hepatitis A, B, C, and E among North American missionaries. Am J Trop Med Hyg 53: 233236.
  22. Leder K, Chen LH, Wilson ME, , 2012. Aggregate travel vs. single trip assessment: arguments for cumulative risk analysis. Vaccine 30: 26002604.[Crossref]
  23. McMahon BJ, Dentinger CM, Bruden D, Zanis C, Peters H, Hurlburt D, Bulkow L, Fiore AE, Bell BP, Hennessy TW, , 2009. Antibody levels and protection after hepatitis B vaccine: results of a 22-year follow-up study and response to a booster dose. J Infect Dis 200: 13901396.[Crossref]
  24. Wilder-Smith A, , 2008. Meningococcal disease: risk for international travellers and vaccine strategies. Travel Med Infect Dis 6: 182186.[Crossref]
  25. Kulshammer M, Winke U, Frank M, Skali-Lami U, Steudel H, Schilling G, Drexler JF, Eis-Hubinger AM, Matz B, , 2013. Poor immunity status against poliomyelitis in medical students: a semi-anonymous study. Med Microbiol Immunol (Berl) 202: 6365.[Crossref]
  26. Alexander JP, Wallace GS, Wassilak SGF, Brunette G, , 2012. Poliomyelitis. , ed. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2012. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.
  27. Gautret P, Tantawichien T, Vu Hai V, Piyaphanee W, , 2011. Determinants of pre-exposure rabies vaccination among foreign backpackers in Bangkok, Thailand. Vaccine 29: 39313934.[Crossref]
  28. Piyaphanee W, Shantavasinkul P, Phumratanaprapin W, Udomchaisakul P, Wichianprasat P, Benjavongkulchai M, Ponam T, Tantawichian T, , 2010. Rabies exposure risk among foreign backpackers in Southeast Asia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 11681171.[Crossref]
  29. Plesner AM, , 2003. Allergic reactions to Japanese encephalitis vaccine. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 23: 665697.[Crossref]
  30. Altmann M, Parola P, Delmont J, Brouqui P, Gautret P, , 2009. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of French travelers from Marseille regarding rabies risk and prevention. J Travel Med 16: 107111.[Crossref]
  31. Arguin PM, Krebs JW, Mandel E, Guzi T, Childs JE, , 2000. Survey of rabies preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis among missionary personnel stationed outside the United States. J Travel Med 7: 1014.[Crossref]
  32. Neuberger A, Zaulan O, Tenenboim S, Vernet S, Pex R, Held K, Urman M, Garpenfeldt K, Schwartz E, , 2011. Malaria among patients and aid workers consulting a primary healthcare centre in Leogane, Haiti, November 2010 to February 2011—a prospective observational study. Euro Surveill 16: 19829.
  33. Dahlgren AL, DeRoo L, Steffen R, , 2006. Prevention of travel-related infectious diseases: knowledge, practices and attitudes of Swedish travellers. Scand J Infect Dis 38: 10741080.[Crossref]
  34. Zuckerman JN, Hoet B, , 2008. Hepatitis B immunisation in travellers: poor risk perception and inadequate protection. Travel Med Infect Dis 6: 315320.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0479
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0479
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 20 Aug 2013
  • Accepted : 23 Dec 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error