Volume 90, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



A 35-year-old Japanese man had an intermittent fever and mild headache for eight weeks after he returned to Japan from working in Mozambique. He had taken antimalarial prophylaxis (doxycycline) for 25 weeks, and stopped taking this drug two weeks after his return. Microscopic examination of a peripheral blood smear showed a mixed infection with , , and . In addition, a nested polymerase chain reaction and subsequent sequencing detected specific DNA sequences of four species of , including The patient was successfully treated with artemether-lumefantrine and primaquine phosphate. The present case is a rare instance of a mixed infection with four species of . Nonimmune persons in malaria-endemic areas may have a risk of mixed infection. All four species must be identified by using sensitive and specific tests, such as a nested polymerase chain reaction, in addition to conventional morphologic identification.


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  • Received : 15 Aug 2013
  • Accepted : 13 Mar 2014
  • Published online : 04 Jun 2014

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