1921
Volume 91, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

In this study we analyze population dynamics of hantavirus rodent hosts and prevalence of infection over a 2-year period in Southern Brazil, a region with a high incidence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The 14 small mammal species captured were composed of 10 rodents and four marsupials, the six most abundant species being , , , , , and . These species displayed a similar pattern with increasing population sizes in fall/winter caused by recruitment and both, increase in reproductive activity and higher hantavirus prevalence in spring/summer. Specific associations between /Jaborá Virus (JABV) and /Juquitiba-like Virus (JUQV-like) and spillover infections between /JABV, /JABV, and /JUQV-like were observed. Spillover infection in secondary hosts seems to play an important role in maintaining JABV and JUQV-like in the hantavirus sylvatic cycle mainly during periods of low prevalence in primary hosts.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0465
2014-08-06
2020-09-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/91/2/249.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0465&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Lednicky JA, 2003. Hantaviruses: a short review. Arch Pathol Lab Med 127: 3035.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Jonsson CB, Figueiredo LT, Vapalahti O, 2010. A global perspective on hantavirus ecology, epidemiology, and disease. Clin Microbiol Rev 23: 412441.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Brazilian Ministry of Health, 2013. Report on Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome until May, 2013. Available at: http://portalsaude.saude.gov.br/portalsaude/arquivos/pdf/2013/Jun/21/ANEXOHANTA(2).pdf. Accessed July 8, 2013.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Raboni SM, Probst CM, Bordignon J, Zeferino A, Duarte dos Santos CN, 2005. Hantaviruses in Central South America: phylogenetic analysis of the S segment from HPS cases in Paraná, Brazil. J Med Virol 76: 553562.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Raboni SM, Hoffmann FG, Oliveira RC, Teixeira BR, Bonvicino CR, Stella V, Carstensen S, Bordignon J, D'Andrea PS, Lemos ER, Duarte dos Santos CN, 2009. Phylogenetic characterization of hantaviruses from wild rodents and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases in the State of Parana (Southern Brazil). J Gen Virol 90: 21662171.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Raboni SM, Delfraro A, de Borba L, Teixeira BR, Stella V, Araujo MR, Carstensen S, Rubio G, Maron A, Lemos ER, D'Andrea PS, Duarte dos Santos CN, 2012. Hantavirus infection prevalence in wild rodents and human anti-hantavirus serological profiles from different geographic areas of South Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 87: 371378.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Suzuki A, Bisordi I, Levis S, Garcia J, Pereira LE, Souza RP, Sugahara TK, Pini N, Enria D, Souza LT, 2004. Identifying rodent hantavirus reservoirs, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 21272134.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Oliveira RC, Teixeira BR, Mello FC, Pereira AP, Duarte AS, Bonaldo MC, Bonvicino CR, D'Andrea PS, Lemos ER, 2009. Genetic characterization of a Juquitiba-like viral lineage in Oligoryzomys nigripes in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Acta Trop 112: 212218.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Oliveira RC, Padula PJ, Gomes R, Martinez VP, Bellomo C, Bonvicino CR, Freire e Lima DI, Bragagnolo C, Caldas AC, D'Andrea PS, Lemos ER, 2011. Genetic characterization of hantaviruses associated with sigmodontine rodents in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Southern Brazil. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 11: 301314.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Pereira LE, Suzuki A, Bisord I, Souza RP, Souza LT, Oshiro FM, Cerroni MP, Neto RS, Pinho JR, 2007. Estudo longitudinal da prevalência dos Vírus Juquitiba e Araraquara em roedores das regiões da Mata Atlântica e do Cerrado do Brasil. Bol Epidemiol Paul 4: 213.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Figueiredo GG, Borges AA, Campos GM, Machado AM, Saggioro FP, Sabino GS Jr, Badra SJ, Ortiz AA, Figueiredo LT, 2010. Diagnosis of hantavirus infection in humans and rodents in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 43: 348354.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Limongi JE, Moreira FG, Peres JB, Suzuki A, Ferreira IB, Souza RP, Pinto RM, Pereira LE, 2013. Serological survey of hantavirus in rodents in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 55: 155158.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Rosa ES, Medeiros DB, Nunes MR, Simith DB, Pereira AD, Elkhoury MR, Santos ED, Lavocat M, Marques AA, Via AV, Kohl VA, Terças AC, D'Andrea PS, Bonvicino CR, 2012. Molecular epidemiology of Laguna Negra virus, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 982985.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Raboni SM, de Borba L, Hoffmann FG, Noronha L, Azevedo ML, Carstensen S, Mazzarotto GA, Bordignon J, Duarte dos Santos CN, 2009. Evidence of circulation of Laguna Negra-like hantavirus in the Central West of Brazil: case report. J Clin Virol 45: 153156.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Johnson AM, Souza LT, Ferreira IB, Pereira LE, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, Peters CJ, Nichol ST, 1999. Genetic investigation of novel hantaviruses causing fatal HPS in Brazil. J Med Virol 59: 527535.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Rosa ES, Medeiros DB, Nunes MR, Simith DB, Pereira AS, Elkhoury MR, Lavocat M, Marques AA, Via AV, D'Andrea PS, Bonvicino CR, Lemos ER, Vasconcelos PF, 2011. Pygmy rice rat as potential host of Castelo dos Sonhos Hantavirus. Emerg Infect Dis 17: 15271530.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Agrellos R, Bonvicino CR, Rosa ES, Marques AA, D'Andrea PS, Weksler M, 2012. The taxonomic status of the Castelo dos Sonhos Hantavirus reservoir. Zootaxa 3220: 128.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Rosa ES, Mills JN, Padula PJ, Elkhoury MR, Ksiazek TG, Mendes WS, Santos ED, Araújo GC, Martinez VP, Rosa JF, Edelstein A, Vasconcelos PF, 2005. Newly recognized hantaviruses associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in northern Brazil: partial genetic characterization of viruses and serologic implication of likely reservoirs. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 5: 1119.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Leduc JW, Smith GA, Pinheiro FP, Vasconcelos PF, Rosa ES, Maiztegui JI, 1985. Isolation of a Hantaan-related virus from Brazilian rats and serologic evidence of its widespread distribution in South America. Am J Trop Med Hyg 34: 810815.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Xiao S, Chu Y, Knauert FK, Lofts R, Dalrymple JM, Leduc JW, 1992. Comparison of hantavirus isolates using a genus-reactive primer pair polymerase chain reaction. J Gen Virol 73: 567573.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Firth C, Tokarz R, Simith DB, Nunes MR, Bhat M, Rosa ES, Medeiros DB, Palacios G, Vasconcelos PF, Lipkin WI, 2012. Diversity and distribution of hantaviruses in South America. J Virol 86: 1375613766.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Chan YC, Wong TW, Yap EH, 1987. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: clinical, virological and epidemiological perspectives. Ann Acad Med Singapore 16: 696701.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Casapia M, Mamani E, Garcia MP, Miraval ML, Valencia P, Quino AH, Álvarez C, Donaires LF, 2012. Síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (Virus Río Mamoré) en la Amazonía Peruana. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 29: 390395.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Chu YK, Goodin D, Owen RD, Koch D, Jonsson CB, 2009. Sympatry of 2 hantavirus strains, Paraguay, 2003–2007. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 20072010.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Padula P, Martinez VP, Bellomo C, Maidana S, Juan JS, Tagliaferri P, Bargardi S, Vazquez C, Colucci N, Estévez J, Almirón M, 2007. Pathogenic hantaviruses, northeastern Argentina and eastern Paraguay. Emerg Infect Dis 13: 12111214.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Delfraro A, Tomé L, D’Elía G, Clara M, Achával F, Russi JC, Rodonz JR, 2008. Juquitiba-like hantavirus from 2 nonrelated rodent species, Uruguay. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 14471451.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Johnson AM, Bowen MD, Ksiazek TG, Williams RJ, Bryan RT, Mills JN, Peters CJ, Nichol ST, 1997. Laguna Negra virus associated with HPS in western Paraguay and Bolivia. Virology 238: 115127.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Carroll DS, Mills JN, Montgomery JM, Bausch DG, Blair PJ, Burans JP, Felices V, Gianella A, Iihoshi N, Nichol ST, Olson JG, Rogers DS, Salazar M, Ksiazek TG, 2005. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Central Bolivia: relationships between reservoir hosts, habitats, and viral genotypes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72: 4246.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Levis S, Garcia J, Pini N, Calderón G, Ramírez J, Bravo D, St Jeor S, Ripoll C, Bego M, Lozano E, Barquez R, Ksiazek TG, Enria D, 2004. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in northwestern Argentina: circulation of Laguna Negra virus associated with Calomys callosus . Am J Trop Med Hyg 71: 658663.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Williams RJ, Bryan RT, Mills JN, Palma RE, Vera I, De Velasquez F, Baez E, Schmidt WE, Figueroa RE, Peters CJ, Zaki SR, Khan AS, Ksiazek TG, 1997. An outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in western Paraguay. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57: 274282.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Hjelle BL, Torrez-Martinez N, Koster FT, 1996. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome-related virus from Bolivia. Lancet 347: 57.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Bharadwaj M, Boten J, Torrez-Martinez N, Hjelle BL, 1997. Rio Mamore virus: genetic characterization of a newly recognized hantavirus of the Pygmy Rice rat, Oligoryzomys microtis, from Bolivia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57: 368374.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Richter MH, Hanson JD, Cajimat MN, Milazzo ML, Fulhorst CF, 2010. Geographical range of Rio Mamoré virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) in association with the small-eared pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys microtis). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 10: 613.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Hjelle B, Torres-Pérez F, 2010. Hantaviruses in the Americas and their role as emerging pathogens. Viruses 2: 25592586.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Chu Y-K, Owen RD, Jonsson CB, 2011. Phylogenetic exploration of hantaviruses in Paraguay reveals reassortment and host switching in South America. Virol J 8: 399.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Figueiredo LT, Moreli ML, de Sousa RL, Borges AA, Figueiredo GG, Machado AM, Bisordi I, Nagasse-Sugahara TK, Suzuki A, Pereira LE, Souza RP, Souza LT, Braconi CT, Harsi CM, Zanotto PM, 2009. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, central plateau, southeastern, and southern Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 561567.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Araujo J, Pereira A, Nardi MS, Henriques DA, Lautenschalager DA, Dutra LM, Ometto TL, Hurtado RF, Maués F, Nava A, Morais FA, Aires CC, Favorito S, Durigon EL, 2011. Detection of hantaviruses in Brazilian rodents by SYBR-Green-based real-time RT-PCR. Arch Virol 156: 12691274.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Araujo J, Thomazelli LM, Henriques DA, Lautenschalager D, Ometto T, Dutra LM, Aires CC, Favorito S, Durigon EL, 2012. Detection of hantavirus in bats from remaining rain forest in São Paulo, Brazil. BMC Res Notes 5: 690.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Oliveira RC, Guterres A, Schrago CG, Fernandes J, Teixeira BR, Zeccer S, Bonvicino CR, D'Andrea PS, Lemos ER, 2012. Detection of the first incidence of Akodon paranaensis naturally infected with the Jabora Virus strain (Hantavirus) in Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 107: 424428.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Cerqueira R, Gentile R, Fernandez FA, D'Andrea PS, 1993. A five-year population study of an assemblage of small mammals in southeastern Brazil. Mammalia 57: 507517.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. D'Andrea PS, Gentile R, Cerqueira R, Grelle CE, Horta C, Rey L, 1999. Ecology of small mammals in a Brazilian rural area. Rev Bras Zool 16: 611620.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. D'Andrea PS, Gentile R, Maroja LS, Fernandes FA, Coura R, Cerqueira R, 2007. Small mammal populations of an agroecosystem in the Atlantic Forest domain, southeastern Brazil. Braz J Biol 67: 179186.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Gentile R, D'Andrea PS, Cerqueira R, Maroja LS, 2000. Population dynamics and reproduction of marsupials and rodents in a Brazilian rural area: a five-year study. Stud Neotrop Fauna Environ 9: 19.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Feliciano BR, Fernandez FA, Freitas D, Figueiredo MS, 2002. Population dynamics of small rodents in a grassland between fragments of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. Mamm Biol 67: 304314.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Cademartori CV, Fabián ME, Menegheti JO, 2004. Variações na abundância de roedores (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) em duas áreas de Floresta Ombrófila Mista, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Rev Bras Zoociências 6: 147167.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Cademartori CV, Fabián ME, Menegheti JO, 2005. Biologia reprodutiva de Delomys dorsalis (Hensel, 1872) - Rodentia, Sigmodontinae - em área de floresta ombrófila mista, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Mastozool Neotrop 12: 133144.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Bonecker ST, Portugal LG, Costa-Neto SF, Gentile R, 2009. A long term study of small mammal populations in a Brazilian agricultural landscape. Mamm Biol 74: 467477.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Antunes PC, Campos MA, Oliveira-Santos LG, Graipel ME, 2010. Population dynamics of Akodon montensis (Rodentia, Cricetidae) in the Atlantic forest of Southern Brazil, 2010. Mamm Biol 75: 186190.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Galiano D, Kubiak BB, Marinho JR, Freitas TR, 2013. Population dynamics of Akodon montensis and Oligoryzomys nigripes in an Araucaria forest of Southern Brazil. Mammalia 77: 173179.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Bonvicino CR, Oliveira JA, D'Andrea PS, 2008. Guia dos roedores do Brasil, com chaves para gêneros baseadas em caracteres externos. Rio de Janeiro: Centro Pan-Americano de Febre Aftosa - OPAS/OMS.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Oliveira JA, Bonvicino CR, 2011. Ordem Rodentia. Reis NR, Peracchi AL, Pedro WA, Lima IP, eds. Mamíferos do Brasil. Second edition. Londrina, PR: Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 358414.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Boone JD, Otteson EW, McGwire KC, Villard P, Rowe JE, St Jeor SC, 1998. Ecology and demographics of hantavirus infections in rodent populations in the Walker River Basin of Nevada and California. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59: 445451.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Mills JN, Ksiazek TG, Peters CJ, Childs JE, 1999. Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: a synthesis. Emerg Infect Dis 5: 135142.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Mills JN, Schmidt K, Ellis BA, Calderón G, Enría DA, Ksiazek TG, 2007. A longitudinal study of hantavirus infection in three sympatric reservoir species in agroecosystems on the Argentine Pampa. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 7: 229240.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Suárez OV, Cueto GR, Cavia R, Villafañe IE, Bilenca DN, Edelstein A, Martínez P, Miguel S, Bellomo C, Hodara K, Padula PJ, Busch M, 2003. Prevalence of infection with hantavirus in rodent populations of central Argentina. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 98: 727732.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Yahnke CJ, Meserve PL, Ksiazek TG, Mills JN, 2001. Patterns of infection with Laguna Negra virus in wild populations of Calomys laucha in the central Paraguayan chaco. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65: 768776.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Owen RD, Goodin DG, Koch DE, Chu Y-K, Jonsson CB, 2010. Spatiotemporal variation in Akodon montensis (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) and hantaviral seroprevalence in a subtropical forest ecosystem. J Mammal 91: 467481.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Piudo L, Monteverde MJ, Walker RS, Douglass RJ, 2011. Rodent community structure and Andes virus infection in sylvan and peridomestic habitats in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 11: 315324.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Vadell MV, Bellomo C, San Martín A, Padula P, Villafañe IG, 2011. Hantavirus ecology in rodent populations in three protected areas of Argentina. Trop Med Int Health 16: 13421352.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Palma RE, Polop JJ, Owen RD, Mills JN, 2012. Ecology of rodent-associated hantaviruses in the Southern Cone of South America: Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. J Wildl Dis 48: 267281.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Balbinot R, Valério ÁF, Sanquetta CR, Caldeira MV, Silvestre R, 2008. Estoque de carbono em plantações de Pinus spp. em diferentes idades no Sul do Estado do Paraná. Floresta 38: 317324.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Mills JN, Childs JE, Ksiazek TG, Peters CJ, 1995. Methods for Trapping and Sampling Small Mammals for Virologic Testing. Atlanta, GA: Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Bonvicino C, Oliveira JA, Gentile R, 2010. A new species of Calomys (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) from Eastern Brazil. Zootaxa 2336: 1925.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Bonvicino CR, 2011. Diversidade cariotípica em roedores Akodontini do Brasil. Bol Soc Bras Mastozoologia 62: 711.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Figueiredo LT, Moreli ML, Borges AA, Figueiredo GG, Badra SJ, Bisordi I, Suzuki A, Capria S, Padula P, 2009. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on Araraquara virus recombinant nucleocapsid protein. Am J Trop Med Hyg 81: 273276.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Mazzarotto GA, Raboni SM, Stella V, Carstensen S, Noronha L, Levis S, Zanluca C, Zanetti CR, Bordignon J, Santos CN, 2009. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the recombinant nucleoprotein of Araucaria hantavirus. J Virol Methods 162: 96100.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Guterres A, Oliveira RC, Fernandes J, D'Andrea PS, Bonvicino CR, Bragagnolo C, Guimarães GD, Almada GL, Machado RR, Lavocat M, Elkhoury MD, Schrago CG, Lemos ER, 2013. Phylogenetic analysis of the S segment from Juquitiba hantavirus: Identification of two distinct lineages in Oligoryzomys nigripes . Infect Genet Evol 18: 262268.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ, 1990. Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol 215: 403410.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S, 2011. MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol 28: 27312739.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Glass GE, Childs JE, Korch GW, Leduc JW, 1988. Association of intraspecific wounding with hantaviral infection in wild rats (Rattus norvegicus). Epidemiol Infect 101: 459472.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Paise G, Vieira EM, 2005. Produção de frutos e distribuição espacial de angiospermas com frutos zoocóricos em uma Floresta Ombrófila Mista no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Rev Bras Bot 28: 615625.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Iob G, Vieira EM, 2008. Seed predation of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) in the Brazilian Araucaria Forest: influence of deposition site and comparative role of small and “large” mammals. Plant Ecol 198: 185196.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Vieira EM, Ribeiro JF, Iob G, 2011. Seed predation of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) by small rodents in two areas with contrasting seed densities in the Brazilian Araucaria Forest. J Nat Hist 45: 843854.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Fonseca GA, Kierulff MC, 1989. Biology and natural history of Brazilian Atlantic forest small mammals. Bull Fla State Mus Biol Sci 34: 99152.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Graipel ME, Cherem JJ, Monteiro-Filho EL, Glock L, 2006. Dinâmica populacional de marsupiais e roedores no Parque Municipal da Lagoa do Peri, Ilha de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. Mastozoología Neotrop 13: 3149.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Hardestam J, Karlsson M, Falk KI, Olsson G, Klingström J, Lundkvist A, 2008. Puumala hantavirus excretion kinetics in bank voles (Myodes glareolus). Emerg Infect Dis 14: 12091215.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Calisher CH, Sweeney W, Mills JN, Beaty BJ, 1999. Natural history of Sin Nombre virus in western Colorado. Emerg Infect Dis 5: 126134.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Hinson ER, Shone SM, Zink MC, Glass GE, Klein SL, 2004. Wounding: the primary mode of Seoul virus transmission among male Norway Rats. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70: 310317.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Escutenaire S, Chalon P, De Jaegere F, Karelle-bui L, Mees G, Brochier B, Rozenfeld F, Pastoret P, 2002. Behavioral, physiologic, and habitat influences on the dynamics of Puumala Virus infection in Bank Voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). Emerg Infect Dis 8: 930936.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Vieira EM, Paise G, Machado PH, 2006. Feeding of small rodents on seeds and fruits: a comparative analysis of three species of rodents of the Araucaria Forest, southern Brazil. Acta Theriol (Warsz) 51: 311318.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Bohlman MC, Morzunov SP, Meissner J, Taylor MB, Ishibashi K, Rowe J, Levis S, Enria D, Jeor SC, 2002. Analysis of hantavirus genetic diversity in Argentina: S segment-derived phylogeny. J Virol 76: 37653773.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Salazar-Bravo J, Armién B, Suzán G, Armién A, Ruedas LA, Avila M, Zaldívar Y, Pascale JM, Gracia F, Yates TL, 2004. Serosurvey of wild rodents for hantaviruses in Panama, 2000–2002. J Wildl Dis 40: 103109.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Raboni SM, Rubio G, de Borba L, Zeferino A, Skraba I, Goldenberg S, Dos Santos CN, 2005. Clinical survey of hantavirus in southern Brazil and the development of specific molecular diagnosis tools. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72: 800804.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Monroe MC, Morzunov SP, Johnson AM, Bowen MD, Artsob H, Yates T, Peters CJ, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Nichol ST, 1999. Genetic diversity and distribution of Peromyscus-borne hantaviruses in North America. Emerg Infect Dis 5: 7586.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Santos ED, Coelho GE, Silva LR, Camargo NJ, Rúbio GG, Correa DS, Stremel N, Elkhoury MR, Oliveira RC, Martins EC, Ferreira IB, Pereira LE, Hatch DL, 2002. Fatores de risco para infecção por hantavirus entre trabalhadores florestais no Paraná, agosto a novembro de 2000. Boletim eletrônico epidemiológico - Ministério da Saúde, Brasil Ano 2: 89. Available at: http://portal.saude.gov.br/portal/arquivos/pdf/ano02_n01_fatores_risco_hantavirus_pr.pdf. Accessed July 8, 2013.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0465
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0465
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 06 Aug 2013
  • Accepted : 21 Jan 2014
  • Published online : 06 Aug 2014
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error