Volume 90, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Tropical infectious diseases diagnosis and surveillance are often hampered by difficulties of sample collection and transportation. Filter paper potentially provides a useful medium to help overcome such problems. We reviewed the literature on the use of filter paper, focusing on the evaluation of nucleic acid and serological assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases using dried blood spots (DBS) compared with recognized gold standards. We reviewed 296 eligible studies and included 101 studies evaluating DBS and 192 studies on other aspects of filter paper use. We also discuss the use of filter paper with other body fluids and for tropical veterinary medicine. In general, DBS perform with sensitivities and specificities similar or only slightly inferior to gold standard sample types. However, important problems were revealed with the uncritical use of DBS, inappropriate statistical analysis, and lack of standardized methodology. DBS have great potential to empower healthcare workers by making laboratory-based diagnostic tests more readily accessible, but additional and more rigorous research is needed.

[open-access] This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene's Re-use License which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Wheat PF, , 2001. History and development of antimicrobial susceptibility testing methodology. J Antimicrob Chemother 48 (Suppl 1): 14.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Chediak A, , 1932. The diagnosis of syphilis on a dessicated and defibrinated blood drop. Rev Med Cubana 43: 953956. [Google Scholar]
  3. Zimmermann E, , 1939. Die Trockblutprobe auf Syphilis; ein Beitrag zu ihrer Vereinfachung. Munch Med Wochenschr 2: 17321733. [Google Scholar]
  4. Joe LK, , 1950. A simple inexpensive and efficient method of preparing dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid feces for dispatch to the laboratory. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 94: 12461254. [Google Scholar]
  5. Anderson RI, Sadun EH, Williams JS, , 1961. A technique for the use of minute amounts of dried blood in the fluorescent antibody test for schistosomiasis. Exp Parasitol 11: 111116.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Guthrie R, Susi A, , 1963. A simple phenylalanine method for detecting phenylketonuria in large populations of newborn infants. Pediatrics 32: 338343. [Google Scholar]
  7. Solomon AW, Engels D, Bailey RL, Blake IM, Brooker S, Chen JX, Chen JH, Churcher TS, Drakeley CJ, Edwards T, Fenwick A, French M, Gabrielli AF, Grassly NC, Harding-Esch EM, Holland MJ, Koukounari A, Lammie PJ, Leslie J, Mabey DC, Rhajaoui M, Secor WE, Stothard JR, Wei H, Willingham AL, Zhou XN, Peeling RW, , 2012. A diagnostics platform for the integrated mapping, monitoring, and surveillance of neglected tropical diseases: rationale and target product profiles. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1746.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Barbi M, Binda S, Caroppo S, , 2006. Diagnosis of congenital CMV infection via dried blood spots. Rev Med Virol 16: 385392.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Bertagnolio S, Parkin NT, Jordan M, Brooks J, Garcia-Lerma JG, , 2010. Dried blood spots for HIV-1 drug resistance and viral load testing: a review of current knowledge and WHO efforts for global HIV drug resistance surveillance. AIDS Rev 12: 195208. [Google Scholar]
  10. Buckton AJ, , 2008. New methods for the surveillance of HIV drug resistance in the resource poor world. Curr Opin Infect Dis 21: 653658.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Hamers RL, Smit PW, Stevens W, Schuurman R, Rinke de Wit TF, , 2009. Dried fluid spots for HIV type-1 viral load and resistance genotyping: a systematic review. Antivir Ther 14: 619629. [Google Scholar]
  12. Johannessen A, Troseid M, Calmy A, , 2009. Dried blood spots can expand access to virological monitoring of HIV treatment in resource-limited settings. J Antimicrob Chemother 64: 11261129.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Keevil BG, , 2011. The analysis of dried blood spot samples using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Clin Biochem 44: 110118.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Mei JV, Alexander JR, Adam BW, Hannon WH, , 2001. Use of filter paper for the collection and analysis of human whole blood specimens. J Nutr 131: 1631S1636S. [Google Scholar]
  15. Parker SP, Cubitt WD, , 1999. The use of the dried blood spot sample in epidemiological studies. J Clin Pathol 52: 633639.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Fiscus SA, Cheng B, Crowe SM, Demeter L, Jennings C, Miller V, Respess R, Stevens W, , 2006. HIV-1 viral load assays for resource-limited settings. PLoS Med 3: e417.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Snijdewind IJ, van Kampen JJ, Fraaij PL, van der Ende ME, Osterhaus AD, Gruters RA, , 2012. Current and future applications of dried blood spots in viral disease management. Antiviral Res 93: 309321.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Burnett JE, , 2011. Dried blood spot sampling: practical considerations and recommendation for use with preclinical studies. Bioanalysis 3: 10991107.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. UNAIDS-WHO, 2008. Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic. Available at: http://www.unaids.org/en/KnowledgeCentre/HIVData/GlobalReport/2008/2008_Global_report.asp. Accessed May 1, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  20. Sherman GG, Stevens G, Jones SA, Horsfield P, Stevens WS, , 2005. Dried blood spots improve access to HIV diagnosis and care for infants in low-resource settings. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 38: 615617.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Boillot F, Peeters M, Kosia A, Delaporte E, , 1997. Prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus among patients with tuberculosis in Sierra Leone, established from dried blood spots on filter paper. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1: 493497. [Google Scholar]
  22. Leelawiwat W, Young NL, Chaowanachan T, Ou CY, Culnane M, Vanprapa N, Waranawat N, Wasinrapee P, Mock PA, Tappero J, McNicholl JM, , 2009. Dried blood spots for the diagnosis and quantitation of HIV-1: stability studies and evaluation of sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of infant HIV-1 infection in Thailand. J Virol Methods 155: 109117.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Nsojo A, Aboud S, Lyamuya E, , 2010. Comparative evaluation of amplicor HIV-1 DNA test, version 1.5, by manual and automated dna extraction methods using venous blood and dried blood spots for HIV-1 DNA pcr testing. Tanzan J Health Res 12: 229235. [Google Scholar]
  24. Stevens W, Erasmus L, Moloi M, Taleng T, Sarang S, , 2008. Performance of a novel human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 total nucleic acid-based real-time PCR assay using whole blood and dried blood spots for diagnosis of HIV in infants. J Clin Microbiol 46: 39413945.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  25. Patton JC, Akkers E, Coovadia AH, Meyers TM, Stevens WS, Sherman GG, , 2007. Evaluation of dried whole blood spots obtained by heel or finger stick as an alternative to venous blood for diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in vertically exposed infants in the routine diagnostic laboratory. Clin Vaccine Immunol 14: 201203.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Lofgren SM, Morrissey AB, Chevallier CC, Malabeja AI, Edmonds S, Amos B, Sifuna DJ, von Seidlein L, Schimana W, Stevens WS, Bartlett JA, Crump JA, , 2009. Evaluation of a dried blood spot HIV-1 RNA program for early infant diagnosis and viral load monitoring at rural and remote healthcare facilities. AIDS 23: 24592466.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  27. Huang S, Erickson B, Mak WB, Salituro J, Abravaya K, , 2011. A novel RealTime HIV-1 Qualitative assay for the detection of HIV-1 nucleic acids in dried blood spots and plasma. J Virol Methods 178: 216224.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Stevens WS, Noble L, Berrie L, Sarang S, Scott LE, , 2009. Ultra-high-throughput, automated nucleic acid detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for infant infection diagnosis using the Gen-Probe Aptima HIV-1 screening assay. J Clin Microbiol 47: 24652469.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  29. Lilian RR, Bhowan K, Sherman GG, , 2010. Early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection in infants with the NucliSens EasyQ assay on dried blood spots. J Clin Virol 48: 4043.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  30. World Health Organization, 2010. WHO Recommendations on the Diagnosis of HIV Infection in Infants and Children. Geneva: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  31. Noda S, Eizuru Y, Minamishima Y, Ikenoue T, Mori N, , 1993. Detection of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 infection by the polymerase chain reaction using dried blood specimens on filter papers. J Virol Methods 43: 111122.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  32. Parker SP, Taylor MB, Ades AE, Cubitt WD, Peckham C, , 1995. Use of dried blood spots for the detection and confirmation of HTLV-I specific antibodies for epidemiological purposes. J Clin Pathol 48: 904907.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  33. Croom HA, Richards KM, Best SJ, Francis BH, Johnson EI, Dax EM, Wilson KM, , 2006. Commercial enzyme immunoassay adapted for the detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in dried blood spots. J Clin Virol 36: 6871.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  34. Judd A, Parry J, Hickman M, McDonald T, Jordan L, Lewis K, Contreras M, Dusheiko G, Foster G, Gill N, Kemp K, Main J, Murray-Lyon I, Nelson M, , 2003. Evaluation of a modified commercial assay in detecting antibody to hepatitis C virus in oral fluids and dried blood spots. J Med Virol 71: 4955.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  35. Tuaillon E, Mondain AM, Meroueh F, Ottomani L, Picot MC, Nagot N, Van de Perre P, Ducos J, , 2010. Dried blood spot for hepatitis C virus serology and molecular testing. Hepatology 51: 752758. [Google Scholar]
  36. Gil A, Gonzalez A, Dal-Re R, Dominguez V, Astasio P, Aguilar L, , 1997. Detection of antibodies against hepatitis A in blood spots dried on filter paper. Is this a reliable method for epidemiological studies? Epidemiol Infect 118: 189191.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  37. Melgaco JG, Pinto MA, Rocha AM, Freire M, Gaspar LP, Lima SM, Cruz OG, Vitral CL, , 2011. The use of dried blood spots for assessing antibody response to hepatitis A virus after natural infection and vaccination. J Med Virol 83: 208217.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  38. Mendy M, Kirk GD, van der Sande M, Jeng-Barry A, Lesi OA, Hainaut P, Sam O, McConkey S, Whittle H, , 2005. Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia and alpha-foetoprotein detection from dried blood spots: applications to field-based studies and to clinical care in hepatitis B virus endemic areas. J Viral Hepat 12: 642647.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  39. Villar LM, de Oliveira JC, Cruz HM, Yoshida CFT, Lampe E, Lewis-Ximenez LL, , 2011. Assessment of dried blood spot samples as a simple method for detection of hepatitis B virus markers. J Med Virol 83: 15221529.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  40. Solmone M, Girardi E, Costa F, Pucillo L, Ippolito G, Capobianchi MR, , 2002. Simple and reliable method for detection and genotyping of hepatitis C virus RNA in dried blood spots stored at room temperature. J Clin Microbiol 40: 35123514.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  41. Kuno G, Gomez I, Gubler DJ, , 1991. An ELISA procedure for the diagnosis of dengue infections. J Virol Methods 33: 101113.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  42. Balmaseda A, Saborio S, Tellez Y, Mercado JC, Perez L, Hammond SN, Rocha C, Kuan G, Harris E, , 2008. Evaluation of immunological markers in serum, filter-paper blood spots, and saliva for dengue diagnosis and epidemiological studies. J Clin Virol 43: 287291.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  43. Matheus S, Meynard J-B, Lacoste V, Morvan J, Deparis X, , 2007. Use of capillary blood samples as a new approach for diagnosis of dengue virus infection. J Clin Microbiol 45: 887890.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  44. Tran TNT, de Vries PJ, Hoang LP, Phan GT, Le HQ, Tran BQ, Vo CMT, Nguyen NV, Kager PA, Nagelkerke N, Groen J, , 2006. Enzyme-linked immunoassay for dengue virus IgM and IgG antibodies in serum and filter paper blood. BMC Infect Dis 6: 13.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  45. Herrera R dl C, Cabrera MV, Garcia S, Gilart M, , 2006. IgM antibodies to dengue virus in dried blood on filter paper. Clin Chim Acta 367: 204206.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  46. Bland JM, Altman DG, , 1995. Comparing methods of measurement: why plotting difference against standard method is misleading. Lancet 346: 10851087.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  47. Prado I, Rosario D, Bernardo L, Alvarez M, Rodriguez R, Vazquez S, Guzman MG, , 2005. PCR detection of dengue virus using dried whole blood spotted on filter paper. J Virol Methods 125: 7581.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  48. Grivard P, Le Roux K, Laurent P, Fianu A, Perrau J, Gigan J, Hoarau G, Grondin N, Staikowsky F, Favier F, Michault A, , 2007. Molecular and serological diagnosis of Chikungunya virus infection. Pathol Biol (Paris) 55: 490494.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  49. Riddell MA, Leydon JA, Catton MG, Kelly HA, , 2002. Detection of measles virus-specific immunoglobulin m in dried venous blood samples by using a commercial enzyme immunoassay. J Clin Microbiol 40: 59.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  50. Riddell MA, Byrnes GB, Leydon JA, Kelly HA, , 2003. Dried venous blood samples for the detection and quantification of measles IgG using a commercial enzyme immunoassay. Bull World Health Organ 81: 701707. [Google Scholar]
  51. Uzicanin A, Lubega I, Nanuynja M, Mercader S, Rota P, Bellini W, Helfand R, , 2011. Dried blood spots on filter paper as an alternative specimen for measles diagnostics: detection of measles immunoglobulin M antibody by a commercial enzyme immunoassay. J Infect Dis 204: S564S569.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  52. Fachiroh J, Prasetyanti PR, Paramita DK, Prasetyawati AT, Anggrahini DW, Haryana SM, Middeldorp JM, , 2008. Dried-blood sampling for Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA serology in nasopharyngeal carcinoma screening. J Clin Microbiol 46: 13741380.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  53. Binda S, Caroppo S, Dido P, Primache V, Veronesi L, Calvario A, Piana A, Barbi M, , 2004. Modification of CMV DNA detection from dried blood spots for diagnosing congenital CMV infection. J Clin Virol 30: 276279.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  54. Dowd JB, Aiello AE, Chyu L, Huang YY, McDade TW, , 2011. Cytomegalovirus antibodies in dried blood spots: a minimally invasive method for assessing stress, immune function, and aging. Immun Ageing 8: 3.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  55. Al-Harthi SA, Jamjoom MB, , 2008. PCR assay in malaria diagnosis using filter paper samples from Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 38: 693706. [Google Scholar]
  56. Ataei S, Nateghpour M, Hajjaran H, Edrissian GH, Foroushani AR, , 2011. High specificity of semi-nested multiplex PCR using dried blood spots on DNA banking card in comparison with frozen liquid blood for detection of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax . J Clin Lab Anal 25: 185190.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  57. Wangai LN, Karau MG, Njiruh PN, Sabah O, Kimani FT, Magoma G, Kiambo N, , 2011. Sensitivity of microscopy compared to molecular diagnosis of P. falciparum: implications on malaria treatment in epidemic areas in Kenya. Afr J Infect Dis 5: 16. [Google Scholar]
  58. Boonma P, Christensen PR, Suwanarusk R, Price RN, Russell B, Lek-Uthai U, , 2007. Comparison of three molecular methods for the detection and speciation of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum . Malar J 6: 124.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  59. Snounou G, Viriyakosol S, Zhu XP, Jarra W, Pinheiro L, do Rosario VE, Thaithong S, Brown KN, , 1993. High sensitivity of detection of human malaria parasites by the use of nested polymerase chain reaction. Mol Biochem Parasitol 61: 315320.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  60. Beshir K, Sutherland CJ, Merinopoulos I, Durrani N, Leslie T, Rowland M, Hallett RL, , 2010. Amodiaquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Afghanistan is associated with the pfcrt SVMNT allele at codons 72 to 76. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54: 37143716.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  61. World Health Organization, 2011. Working to Overcome the Global Impact of Neglected Tropical Diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  62. Itoh M, Gunawardena NK, Qiu XG, Weerasooriya MV, Kimura E, , 1998. The use of whole blood absorbed on filter paper to detect Wuchereria bancrofti circulating antigen. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92: 513515.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  63. Hoti SL, Elango A, Radjame K, Yuvaraj J, Pani SP, , 2002. Detection of day blood filarial antigens by Og4C3 ELISA test using filter paper samples. Natl Med J India 15: 263266. [Google Scholar]
  64. Wattal S, Dhariwal AC, Ralhan PK, Tripathi VC, Regu K, Kamal S, Lal S, , 2007. Evaluation of Og4C3 antigen ELISA as a tool for detection of bancroftian filariasis under lymphatic filariasis elimination programme. J Commun Dis 39: 7584. [Google Scholar]
  65. Gyapong JO, Omane-Badu K, Webber RH, , 1998. Evaluation of the filter paper blood collection method for detecting Og4C3 circulating antigen in bancroftian filariasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92: 407410.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  66. Weil GJ, Curtis KC, Fischer PU, Won KY, Lammie PJ, Joseph H, Melrose WD, Brattig NW, , 2011. A multicenter evaluation of a new antibody test kit for lymphatic filariasis employing recombinant Brugia malayi antigen Bm-14. Acta Trop 120: S19S22.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  67. Fischer P, Bonow I, Supali T, Ruckert P, Rahmah N, , 2005. Detection of filaria-specific IgG4 antibodies and filarial DNA, for the screening of blood spots for Brugia timori . Ann Trop Med Parasitol 99: 5360.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  68. Kluber S, Supali T, Williams SA, Liebau E, Fischer P, , 2001. Rapid PCR-based detection of Brugia malayi DNA from blood spots by DNA Detection Test Strips. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95: 169170.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  69. Rahmah N, Nurulhasanah O, Norhayati S, Zulkarnain I, Norizan M, , 2010. Comparison of conventional versus real-time PCR detection of Brugia malayi DNA from dried blood spots from school children in a low endemic area. Trop Biomed 27: 5459. [Google Scholar]
  70. Fink DL, Kamgno J, Nutman TB, , 2011. Rapid molecular assays for specific detection and quantitation of Loa loa microfilaremia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: 8.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  71. Chappuis F, Pittet A, Bovier PA, Adams K, Godineau V, Hwang SY, Magnus E, Büscher P, , 2002. Field evaluation of the CATT/Trypanosoma brucei gambiense on blood-impregnated filter papers for diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis in southern Sudan. Trop Med Int Health 7: 942948.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  72. Truc P, Lejon V, Magnus E, Jamonneau V, Nangouma A, Verloo D, Penchenier L, Buscher P, , 2002. Evaluation of the micro-CATT, CATT/Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, and LATEX/T b gambiense methods for serodiagnosis and surveillance of human African trypanosomiasis in West and Central Africa. Bull World Health Organ 80: 882886. [Google Scholar]
  73. Luquetti AO, Ponce C, Ponce E, Esfandiari J, Schijman A, Revollo S, Anez N, Zingales B, Ramgel-Aldao R, Gonzalez A, Levin MJ, Umezawa ES, Da Silveira JF, , 2003. Chagas' disease diagnosis: a multicentric evaluation of Chagas Stat-Pak, a rapid immunochromatographic assay with recombinant proteins of Trypanosoma cruzi . Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 46: 265271.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  74. Zicker F, Smith PG, Luquetti AO, Oliveira OS, , 1990. Mass screening for Trypanosoma cruzi infections using the immunofluorescence, ELISA and haemagglutination tests on serum samples and on blood eluates from filter-paper. Bull World Health Organ 68: 465471. [Google Scholar]
  75. Campino L, Cortes S, Pires R, Oskam L, Abranches P, , 2000. Detection of Leishmania in immunocompromised patients using peripheral blood spots on filter paper and the polymerase chain reaction. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 19: 396398.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  76. Coltorti E, Guarnera E, Larrieu E, Santillan G, Aquino A, , 1988. Seroepidemiology of human hydatidosis: use of dried blood samples on filter paper. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 82: 607610.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  77. Bartholomot B, Vuitton DA, Harraga S, Shi DZ, Giraudoux P, Barnish G, Wang YH, MacPherson CNL, Craig PS, , 2002. Combined ultrasound and serologic screening for hepatic alveolar Echinococcosis in central China. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66: 2329. [Google Scholar]
  78. Cohen H, Paolillo E, Bonifacino R, Botta B, Parada L, Cabrera P, Snowden K, Gasser R, Tessier R, Dibarboure L, Wen H, Allan JC, Soto de Alfaro H, Rogan MT, Craig PS, , 1998. Human cystic echinococcosis in a Uruguayan community: a sonographic, serologic, and epidemiologic study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59: 620627. [Google Scholar]
  79. Strauss W, O'Neill SM, Parkinson M, Angles R, Dalton JP, , 1999. Short report: diagnosis of human fascioliasis: detection of anti-cathepsin L antibodies in blood samples collected on filter paper. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60: 746748. [Google Scholar]
  80. Peralta RHS, Macedo HW, Vaz AJ, Machado LR, Peralta Jose M, , 2001. Detection of anti-cysticercus antibodies by ELISA using whole blood collected on filter paper. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95: 3536.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  81. Fleury A, Bouteille B, Garcia E, Marquez C, Preux PM, Escobedo F, Sotelo J, Dumas M, , 2001. Neurocysticercosis: validity of ELISA after storage of whole blood and cerebrospinal fluid on paper. Trop Med Int Health 6: 688693.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  82. Parker SP, Cubitt WD, , 1992. Modified latex agglutination test for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in eluates from Guthrie cards. J Clin Pathol 45: 907909.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  83. Guimaraes S, Sogayar MIL, , 2002. Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers. Rev Saude Publica 36: 6368.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  84. al-Tukhi MH, Ackers JP, al-Ahdal MN, Peters W, , 1993. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of anti-Giardia specific immunoglobulin G in filter paper blood samples. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87: 3638.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  85. Butlin CR, Soares D, Neupane KD, Failbus SS, Roche PW, , 1997. IgM anti-phenolic glycolipid-I antibody measurements from skin-smear sites: correlation with venous antibody levels and the bacterial index. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis 65: 465468. [Google Scholar]
  86. Chanteau S, Plichart R, Boutin JP, Roux J, Cartel JL, , 1989. Finger-prick blood collection and computer-assisted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for large-scale serological studies on leprosy. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 83: 414416.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  87. Dhandayuthapani S, Anandan D, Vasanthi B, Bhatia VN, , 1989. Use of eluates of filter paper blood spots in ELISA for the serodiagnosis of leprosy. Indian J Med Res 89: 150157. [Google Scholar]
  88. Sekar B, Anandan D, , 1992. Evaluation of Mycobacterium leprae particle agglutination test, using eluates of filter paper blood spots. Lepr Rev 63: 117124. [Google Scholar]
  89. Takkouche B, Iglesias J, Alonso-Fernandez JR, Fernandez-Gonzalez C, Gestal-Otero JJ, , 1995. Detection of Brucella antibodies in eluted dried blood: a validation study. Immunol Lett 45: 107108.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  90. Desvars A, Gigan J, Hoarau G, Gerardin P, Favier F, Michault A, , 2011. Short report: Seroprevalence of human leptospirosis in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) assessed by microscopic agglutination test on paper disc-absorbed whole blood. Am J Trop Med Hyg 85: 10971099.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  91. Stevens R, Pass K, Fuller S, Wiznia A, Noble L, Duva S, Neal M, , 1992. Blood spot screening and confirmatory tests for syphilis antibody. J Clin Microbiol 30: 23532358. [Google Scholar]
  92. Coates GL, Guarenti L, Parker SP, Willumsen JF, Tomkins AM, , 1998. Evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of a Treponema pallidum dried blood spot technique for use in the detection of syphilis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92: 44.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  93. Phetsouvanh R, Blacksell SD, Jenjaroen K, Day NP, Newton PN, , 2009. Comparison of indirect immunofluorescence assays for diagnosis of scrub typhus and murine typhus using venous blood and finger prick filter paper blood spots. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80: 837840. [Google Scholar]
  94. Fenollar F, Raoult D, , 1999. Diagnosis of rickettsial diseases using samples dried on blotting paper. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 6: 483488. [Google Scholar]
  95. Backhouse JL, Lee MH, Nesteroff SI, Hudson BJ, Hamilton PA, , 1992. Modified indirect hemagglutination test for detection of treponemal antibodies in finger-prick blood. J Clin Microbiol 30: 561563. [Google Scholar]
  96. Mei JV, Zobel SD, Hall EM, De Jesus VR, Adam BW, Hannon WH, , 2010. Performance properties of filter paper devices for whole blood collection. Bioanalysis 2: 13971403.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  97. Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, 2002. Serologic Assays for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antibody in Dried-Blood Specimens Collected on Filter Paper. Atlanta, GA: US CDC. [Google Scholar]
  98. Corran PH, Cook J, Lynch C, Leendertse H, Manjurano A, Griffin J, Cox J, Abeku T, Bousema T, Ghani AC, Drakeley C, Riley E, , 2008. Dried blood spots as a source of anti-malarial antibodies for epidemiological studies. Malar J 7: 195.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  99. World Health Organization, 2012. WHO Manual for HIV Drug Resistance Testing Using Dried Blood Spot Specimens. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  100. Hearps AC, Ryan CE, Morris LM, Plate MM, Greengrass V, Crowe SM, , 2010. Stability of dried blood spots for HIV-1 drug resistance analysis. Curr HIV Res 8: 134140.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  101. Li CC, Beck IA, Seidel KD, Frenkel LM, , 2004. Persistence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype B DNA in dried-blood samples on FTA filter paper. J Clin Microbiol 42: 38473849.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  102. Monleau M, Montavon C, Laurent C, Segondy M, Montes B, Delaporte E, Boillot F, Peeters M, , 2009. Evaluation of different RNA extraction methods and storage conditions of dried plasma or blood spots for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA quantification and PCR amplification for drug resistance testing. J Clin Microbiol 47: 11071118.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  103. Michaud V, Gil P, Kwiatek O, Prome S, Dixon L, Romero L, Le Potier MF, Arias M, Couacy-Hymann E, Roger F, Libeau G, Albina E, , 2007. Long-term storage at tropical temperature of dried-blood filter papers for detection and genotyping of RNA and DNA viruses by direct PCR. J Virol Methods 146: 257265.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  104. Kuno G, , 1995. Review of the factors modulating dengue transmission. Epidemiol Rev 17: 321335.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  105. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012. Shipping Guidelines for Dried-Blood Spot Specimens. Atlanta, GA: US CDC. [Google Scholar]
  106. Reitmeyer JC, Ewert A, Crawford MA, Reitmeyer GR, Mock L, , 1993. Survival of group A streptococci in dried human blood. J Med Microbiol 38: 6163.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  107. Evengard B, Ehrnst A, von Sydow M, Pehrson PO, Lundbergh P, Linder E, , 1989. Effect of heat on extracted HIV viral infectivity and antibody activity using the filter paper technique of blood sampling. AIDS 3: 591595.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  108. Abdelwhab EM, Luschow D, Harder TC, Hafez HM, , 2011. The use of FTA filter papers for diagnosis of avian influenza virus. J Virol Methods 174: 120122.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  109. Adam BW, Alexander JR, Smith SJ, Chace DH, Loeber JG, Elvers LH, Hannon WH, , 2000. Recoveries of phenylalanine from two sets of dried-blood-spot reference materials: Prediction from hematocrit, spot volume, and paper matrix. Clin Chem 46: 126128. [Google Scholar]
  110. Bossuyt PM, Reitsma JB, Bruns DE, Gatsonis CA, Glasziou PP, Irwig LM, Lijmer JG, Moher D, Rennie D, de Vet HC, , 2003. Towards complete and accurate reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy: the STARD initiative. BMJ 326: 4144.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  111. Desbois D, Roque-Afonso AM, Lebraud P, Dussaix E, , 2009. Use of dried serum spots for serological and molecular detection of hepatitis A virus. J Clin Microbiol 47: 15361542.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  112. Barin F, Plantier JC, Brand D, Brunet S, Moreau A, Liandier B, Thierry D, Cazein F, Lot F, Semaille C, Desenclos JC, , 2006. Human immunodeficiency virus serotyping on dried serum spots as a screening tool for the surveillance of the AIDS epidemic. J Med Virol 78 (Suppl 1): S13S18.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  113. Abe K, Konomi N, , 1998. Hepatitis C virus RNA in dried serum spotted onto filter paper is stable at room temperature. J Clin Microbiol 36: 30703072. [Google Scholar]
  114. Ayele W, Schuurman R, Messele T, Dorigo-Zetsma W, Mengistu Y, Goudsmit J, Paxton WA, de Baar MP, Pollakis G, , 2007. Use of dried spots of whole blood, plasma, and mother's milk collected on filter paper for measurement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 burden. J Clin Microbiol 45: 891896.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  115. Cassol S, Gill MJ, Pilon R, Cormier M, Voigt RF, Willoughby B, Forbes J, , 1997. Quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA from dried plasma spots collected on filter paper. J Clin Microbiol 35: 27952801. [Google Scholar]
  116. Brambilla D, Jennings C, Aldrovandi G, Bremer J, Comeau AM, Cassol SA, Dickover R, Jackson JB, Pitt J, Sullivan JL, Butcher A, Grosso L, Reichelderfer P, Fiscus SA, , 2003. Multicenter evaluation of use of dried blood and plasma spot specimens in quantitative assays for human immunodeficiency virus RNA: measurement, precision, and RNA stability. J Clin Microbiol 41: 18881893.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  117. Rossi de Gasperis M, Caione MD, Concato C, Fiscarelli E, Di Pietro N, Salotti V, Putignani L, Menichella D, Callea F, , 2010. Quantitative recovery of proviral HIV-1 DNA from leukocytes by the Dried Buffy Coat Spot method for real-time PCR determination. J Virol Methods 170: 121127.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  118. Alam MZ, Shamsuzzaman AKM, Kuhls K, Schonian G, , 2009. PCR diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic region, Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. Trop Med Int Health 14: 499503.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  119. Boggild AK, Valencia BM, Espinosa D, Veland N, Ramos AP, Arevalo J, Llanos-Cuentas A, Low DE, , 2010. Detection and species identification of Leishmania DNA from filter paper lesion impressions for patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clin Infect Dis 50: e1e6.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  120. Fata A, Khamesipour A, Mohajery M, Hosseininejad Z, Afzalaghaei M, Berenji F, Ganjbakhsh M, Akhavan AA, Eskandari E, Amin-Mohammadi A, , 2009. Whatman paper (FTA cards) for storing and transferring Leishmania DNA for PCR examination. Iran J Parasitol 4: 3742. [Google Scholar]
  121. Aye KS, Matsuoka M, Kai M, Kyaw K, Win AA, Shwe MM, Thein M, Htoo MM, Htoon MT, , 2011. FTA card utility for PCR detection of Mycobacterium leprae . Jpn J Infect Dis 64: 246248. [Google Scholar]
  122. Chibo D, Riddell MA, Catton MG, Birch CJ, , 2005. Applicability of oral fluid collected onto filter paper for detection and genetic characterization of measles virus strains. J Clin Microbiol 43: 31453149.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  123. Mharakurwa S, Simoloka C, Thuma PE, Shiff CJ, Sullivan DJ, , 2006. PCR detection of Plasmodium falciparum in human urine and saliva samples. Malar J 5: 103.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  124. Nuchprayoon S, Saksirisampant W, Jaijakul S, Nuchprayoon I, , 2007. FlindersTechnology Associates (FTA) filter paper-based DNA extraction with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii from respiratory specimens of immunocompromised patients. J Clin Lab Anal 21: 382386.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  125. Gustavsson I, Lindell M, Wilander E, Strand A, Gyllensten U, , 2009. Use of FTA card for dry collection, transportation and storage of cervical cell specimen to detect high-risk HPV. J Clin Virol 46: 112116.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  126. Kailash U, Hedau S, Gopalkrishna V, Katiyar S, Das BC, , 2002. A simple ‘paper smear’ method for dry collection, transport and storage of cervical cytological specimens for rapid screening of HPV infection by PCR. J Med Microbiol 51: 606610.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  127. Banura C, Franceschi S, van Doorn LJ, Wabwire-Mangen F, Mbidde EK, Weiderpass E, , 2008. Detection of cervical human papillomavirus infection in filter paper samples: a comparative study. J Med Microbiol 57: 253255.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  128. Peltola H, Roine I, Leinonen M, Kuisma L, Mata AG, Arbo A, Goyo J, Saukkoriipi A, , 2010. Diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis by identifying DNA from cerebrospinal fluid-impregnated filter paper strips. Pediatr Infect Dis J 29: 111114.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  129. Page AL, Alberti KP, Guenole A, Mondongue V, Lonlas Mayele S, Guerin PJ, Quilici ML, , 2011. Use of filter paper as a transport medium for laboratory diagnosis of cholera under field conditions. J Clin Microbiol 49: 30213023.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  130. Wollants E, Maes P, Thoelen I, Vanneste F, Rahman M, Van Ranst M, , 2004. Evaluation of a norovirus sampling method using sodium dodecyl sulfate/EDTA-pretreated chromatography paper strips. J Virol Methods 122: 4548.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  131. Rahman M, Goegebuer T, De Leener K, Maes P, Matthijnssens J, Podder G, Azim T, Van Ranst M, , 2004. Chromatography paper strip method for collection, transportation, and storage of rotavirus RNA in stool samples. J Clin Microbiol 42: 16051608.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  132. Zlateva KT, Maes P, Rahman M, Van Ranst M, , 2005. Chromatography paper strip sampling of enteric adenoviruses type 40 and 41 positive stool specimens. Virol J 2: 6.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  133. Nozawa N, Koyano S, Yamamoto Y, Inami Y, Kurane I, Inoue N, , 2007. Real-time PCR assay using specimens on filter disks as a template for detection of cytomegalovirus in urine. J Clin Microbiol 45: 13051307.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  134. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank and The TAFS Forum, 2011. World Livestock Disease Atlas: A Quantitative Analysis of Global Animal Health Data (2006–2009). Washington, DC: World Bank. Available at: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2011/11/15812714/world-livestock-disease-atlas-quantitative-analysis-global-animal-health-data-2006-2009. [Google Scholar]
  135. Smith LM, Burgoyne LA, , 2004. Collecting, archiving and processing DNA from wildlife samples using FTA databasing paper. BMC Ecol 4: 4.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  136. Figueiredo FB, Madeira MF, Nascimento LD, Abrantes TR, Mouta-Confort E, Passos SR, Schubach TM, , 2010. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: study of methods for the detection of IgG in serum and eluate samples. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 52: 193196.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  137. Kalayou S, Tadelle H, Bsrat A, Abebe N, Haileselassie M, Schallig HD, , 2011. Serological evidence of Leishmania donovani infection in apparently healthy dogs using direct agglutination test (DAT) and rk39 dipstick tests in Kafta Humera, north-west Ethiopia. Transbound Emerg Dis 58: 255262.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  138. Martinez AW, Phillips ST, Whitesides GM, Carrilho E, , 2010. Diagnostics for the developing world: microfluidic paper-based analytical devices. Anal Chem 82: 310.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  139. Matheus S, Chappert JL, Cassadou S, Berger F, Labeau B, Bremand L, Winicki A, Huc-Anais P, Quenel P, Dussart P, , 2012. Virological surveillance of dengue in Saint Martin and Saint Barthelemy, French West Indies, using blood samples on filter paper. Am J Trop Med Hyg 86: 159165.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  140. Mangold KA, Manson RU, Koay ES, Stephens L, Regner M, Thomson RB, Jr Peterson LR, Kaul KL, , 2005. Real-time PCR for detection and identification of Plasmodium spp. J Clin Microbiol 43: 24352440.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  141. Yamamura M, Makimura K, Ota Y, , 2009. Evaluation of a new rapid molecular diagnostic system for Plasmodium falciparum combined with DNA filter paper, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, and melting curve analysis. Jpn J Infect Dis 62: 2025. [Google Scholar]
  142. Craine N, Parry J, O'Toole J, D'Arcy S, Lyons M, , 2009. Improving blood-borne viral diagnosis; clinical audit of the uptake of dried blood spot testing offered by a substance misuse service. J Viral Hepat 16: 219222.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  143. Lukacs Z, Dietrich A, Ganschow R, Kohlschutter A, Kruithof R, , 2005. Simultaneous determination of HIV antibodies, hepatitis C antibodies, and hepatitis B antigens in dried blood spots—a feasibility study using a multi-analyte immunoassay. Clin Chem Lab Med 43: 141145.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  144. De Crignis E, Re MC, Cimatti L, Zecchi L, Gibellini D, , 2010. HIV-1 and HCV detection in dried blood spots by SYBR Green multiplex real-time RT-PCR. J Virol Methods 165: 5156.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  145. Solomon SS, Solomon S, Rodriguez II, McGarvey ST, Ganesh AK, Thyagarajan SP, Mahajan AP, Mayer KH, , 2002. Dried blood spots (DBS): a valuable tool for HIV surveillance in developing/tropical countries. Int J STD AIDS 13: 2528.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  146. Cachafeiro A, Sherman GG, Sohn AH, Beck-Sague C, Fiscus SA, , 2009. Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in infants by use of dried blood spots and an ultrasensitive p24 antigen assay. J Clin Microbiol 47: 459462.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  147. Patton JC, Coovadia AH, Meyers TM, Sherman GG, , 2008. Evaluation of the ultrasensitive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) p24 antigen assay performed on dried blood spots for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in infants. Clin Vaccine Immunol 15: 388391.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  148. Mercader S, Featherstone D, Bellini WJ, , 2006. Comparison of available methods to elute serum from dried blood spot samples for measles serology. J Virol Methods 137: 140149.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  149. Gohring K, Dietz K, Hartleif S, Jahn G, Hamprecht K, , 2010. Influence of different extraction methods and PCR techniques on the sensitivity of HCMV-DNA detection in dried blood spot (DBS) filter cards. J Clin Virol 48: 278281.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  150. Castro AC, Borges LG, Souza R da S, Grudzinski M, D'Azevedo PA, , 2008. Evaluation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 antibodies detection in dried whole blood spots (DBS) samples. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 50: 151156.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  151. Chaillet P, Zachariah R, Harries K, Rusanganwa E, Harries AD, , 2009. Dried blood spots are a useful tool for quality assurance of rapid HIV testing in Kigali, Rwanda. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 103: 634637.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  152. Lakshmi V, Sudha T, Bhanurekha M, Dandona L, , 2007. Evaluation of the Murex HIV Ag/Ab Combination assay when used with dried blood spots. Clin Microbiol Infect 13: 11341136.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  153. Mashange W, Soko W, Gomo E, , 2003. Validation of a simple and cheap gelatin particle agglutination test for human immunodeficiency virus using dried blood spot samples. Cent Afr J Med 49: 58. [Google Scholar]
  154. Sarge-Njie R, Schim Van Der Loeff M, Ceesay S, Cubitt D, Sabally S, Corrah T, Whittle H, , 2006. Evaluation of the dried blood spot filter paper technology and five testing strategies of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in West Africa. Scand J Infect Dis 38: 10501056.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  155. Knuchel MC, Jullu B, Shah C, Tomasik Z, Stoeckle MP, Speck RF, Nadal D, Mshinda H, Boni J, Tanner M, Schupbach J, , 2007. Adaptation of the ultrasensitive HIV-1 p24 antigen assay to dried blood spot testing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 44: 247253.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  156. Mwapasa V, Cachafeiro A, Makuta Y, Beckstead DJ, Pennell ML, Chilima B, Mwagomba B, Fiscus SA, Kwiek JJ, , 2010. Using a simplified human immunodeficiency virus type 1 p24 antigen assay to diagnose pediatric HIV-infection in Malawi. J Clin Virol 49: 299302.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  157. Patton JC, Sherman GG, Coovadia AH, Stevens WS, Meyers TM, , 2006. Ultrasensitive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 p24 antigen assay modified for use on dried whole-blood spots as a reliable, affordable test for infant diagnosis. Clin Vaccine Immunol 13: 152155.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  158. Kebe K, Ndiaye O, Diop Ndiaye H, Mbakob Mengue P, Guindo PMM, Diallo S, Leye N, Gueye SB, Gaye Diallo A, Toure Kane C, Mboup S, , 2011. RNA versus DNA (NucliSENS EasyQ HIV-1 v1.2 versus Amplicor HIV-1 DNA test v1.5) for early diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in infants in Senegal. J Clin Microbiol 49: 25902593.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  159. Kerr RJ, Player G, Fiscus SA, Nelson JA, , 2009. Qualitative human immunodeficiency virus RNA analysis of dried blood spots for diagnosis of infections in infants. J Clin Microbiol 47: 220222.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  160. Nugent CT, Dockter J, Bernardin F, Hecht R, Smith D, Delwart E, Pilcher C, Richman D, Busch M, Giachetti C, , 2009. Detection of HIV-1 in alternative specimen types using the APTIMA HIV-1 RNA Qualitative Assay. J Virol Methods 159: 1014.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  161. Burke DS, Chatiyanonda K, Anandrik S, , 1985. Improved surveillance of Japanese encephalitis by detection of virus-specific IgM in desiccated blood specimens. Bull World Health Organ 63: 10371042. [Google Scholar]
  162. Long GW, Fries L, Watt GH, Hoffman SL, , 1995. Polymerase chain reaction amplification from Plasmodium falciparum on dried blood spots. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52: 344346. [Google Scholar]
  163. Singh B, Cox-Singh J, Miller AO, Abdullah MS, Snounou G, Rahman HA, , 1996. Detection of malaria in Malaysia by nested polymerase chain reaction amplification of dried blood spots on filter papers. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90: 519521.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  164. Singh B, Bobogare A, Cox-Singh J, Snounou G, Abdullah MS, Rahman HA, , 1999. A genus- and species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction malaria detection assay for epidemiologic studies. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60: 687692. [Google Scholar]
  165. Tham JM, Lee SH, Tan TM, Ting RC, Kara UA, , 1999. Detection and species determination of malaria parasites by PCR: comparison with microscopy and with ParaSight-F and ICT malaria Pf tests in a clinical environment. J Clin Microbiol 37: 12691273. [Google Scholar]
  166. Mangold KA, Manson RU, Koay ESC, Stephens L, Regner M, Thomson RB, Peterson LR, Kaul KL, , 2005. Real-Time PCR for detection and identification of Plasmodium spp. J Clin Microbiol 43: 24352440.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  167. Santhanam S, Kumar H, Sethumadhavan KV, Chandrasekharan A, Jain DC, Malhotra A, Ghosh TK, Weil GJ, , 1989. Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti antigen in serum and finger prick blood samples by enzyme immunoassay: field evaluation. Trop Med Parasitol 40: 440444. [Google Scholar]
  168. Tang THT, Lopez-Velez R, Lanza M, Shelley AJ, Rubio JM, Luz SLB, , 2010. Nested PCR to detect and distinguish the sympatric filarial species Onchocerca volvulus, Mansonella ozzardi and Mansonella perstans in the Amazon Region. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 105: 823828.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary PDF

  • Received : 06 Aug 2013
  • Accepted : 04 Nov 2013
  • Published online : 05 Feb 2014

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error