1921
Volume 90, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

We assessed the effect of mass azithromycin treatment on malaria parasitemia in a trachoma trial in Niger. Twenty-four study communities received treatment during the wet, high-transmission season. Twelve of the 24 communities were randomized to receive an additional treatment during the dry, low-transmission season. Outcome measurements were conducted at the community-level in children < 1–72 months of age in May–June 2011. Parasitemia was higher in the 12 once-treated communities (29.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.5–40.0%) than in the 12 twice-treated communities (19.5%, 95% CI = 13.0–26.5%, = 0.03). Parasite density was higher in once-treated communities (354 parasites/μL, 95% CI = 117–528 parasites/μL) than in twice-treated communities (74 parasites/μL, 95% CI = 41–202 parasites/μL, = 0.03). Mass distribution of azithromycin reduced malaria parasitemia 4–5 months after the intervention. The results suggest that drugs with antimalaria activity can have long-lasting impacts on malaria during periods of low transmission.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0379
2014-05-07
2017-09-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/90/5/846.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0379&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Keenan JD, Ayele B, Gebre T, Zerihun M, Zhou Z, House JI, Gaynor BD, Porco TC, Emerson PM, Lietman TM, , 2011. Childhood mortality in a cohort treated with mass azithromycin for trachoma. Clin Infect Dis 52: 883888.[Crossref]
  2. Porco TC, Gebre T, Ayele B, House J, Keenan J, Zhou Z, Hong KC, Stoller N, Ray KJ, Emerson P, Gaynor BD, Lietman TM, , 2009. Effect of mass distribution of azithromycin for trachoma control on overall mortality in Ethiopian children: a randomized trial. JAMA 302: 962968.[Crossref]
  3. Sadiq ST, Glasgow KW, Drakeley CJ, Muller O, Greenwood BM, Mabey DC, Bailey RL, , 1995. Effects of azithromycin on malariometric indices in The Gambia. Lancet 346: 881882.[Crossref]
  4. Whitty CJ, Glasgow KW, Sadiq ST, Mabey DC, Bailey R, , 1999. Impact of community-based mass treatment for trachoma with oral azithromycin on general morbidity in Gambian children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 18: 955958.[Crossref]
  5. Fry AM, Jha HC, Lietman TM, Chaudhary JS, Bhatta RC, Elliott J, Hyde T, Schuchat A, Gaynor B, Dowell SF, , 2002. Adverse and beneficial secondary effects of mass treatment with azithromycin to eliminate blindness due to trachoma in Nepal. Clin Infect Dis 35: 395402.[Crossref]
  6. Coles CL, Seidman JC, Levens J, Mkocha H, Munoz B, West S, , 2011. Association of mass treatment with azithromycin in trachoma-endemic communities with short-term reduced risk of diarrhea in young children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 85: 691696.[Crossref]
  7. Lode H, Borner K, Koeppe P, Schaberg T, , 1996. Azithromycin–review of key chemical, pharmacokinetic and microbiological features. J Antimicrob Chemother 37 (Suppl C): 18.[Crossref]
  8. Ahorlu CK, Koram KA, Seakey AK, Weiss MG, , 2009. Effectiveness of combined intermittent preventive treatment for children and timely home treatment for malaria control. Malar J 8: 292.[Crossref]
  9. Cisse B, Sokhna C, Boulanger D, Milet J, Bâ el H, Richardson K, Hallett R, Sutherland C, Simondon K, Simondon F, Alexander N, Gaye O, Targett G, Lines J, Greenwood B, Trape JF, , 2006. Seasonal intermittent preventive treatment with artesunate and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for prevention of malaria in Senegalese children: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Lancet 367: 659667.[Crossref]
  10. Gu W, Killeen GF, Mbogo CM, Regens JL, Githure JI, Beier JC, , 2003. An individual-based model of Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission on the coast of Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97: 4350.[Crossref]
  11. Lee DC, Chidambaram JD, Porco TC, Lietman TM, , 2005. Seasonal effects in the elimination of trachoma. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72: 468470.
  12. Okell LC, Griffin JT, Kleinschmidt I, Hollingsworth TD, Churcher TS, White MJ, Bousema T, Drakeley CJ, Ghani AC, , 2011. The potential contribution of mass treatment to the control of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. PLoS ONE 6: e20179.[Crossref]
  13. Andersen SL, Oloo AJ, Gordon DM, Ragama OB, Aleman GM, Berman JD, Tang DB, Dunne MW, Shanks GD, , 1998. Successful double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled field trial of azithromycin and doxycycline as prophylaxis for malaria in western Kenya. Clin Infect Dis 26: 146150.[Crossref]
  14. Chico RM, Pittrof R, Greenwood B, Chandramohan D, , 2008. Azithromycin-chloroquine and the intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy. Malar J 7: 255.[Crossref]
  15. Taylor WR, Richie TL, Fryauff DJ, Picarima H, Ohrt C, Tang D, Braitman D, Murphy GS, Widjaja H, Tjitra E, Ganjar A, Jones TR, Basri H, Berman J, , 1999. Malaria prophylaxis using azithromycin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Clin Infect Dis 28: 7481.[Crossref]
  16. Amza A, Kadri B, Nassirou B, Stoller NE, Yu SN, Zhou Z, Chin S, West SK, Bailey RL, Mabey DC, Keenan JD, Porco TC, Lietman TM, Gaynor BD, PRET Partnership, , 2012. Community risk factors for ocular Chlamydia infection in Niger: pre-treatment results from a cluster-randomized trachoma trial. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1586.[Crossref]
  17. Stare D, Harding-Esch E, Munoz B, Bailey R, Mabey D, Holland M, Gaydos C, West S, , 2011. Design and baseline data of a randomized trial to evaluate coverage and frequency of mass treatment with azithromycin: the Partnership for Rapid Elimination of Trachoma (PRET) in Tanzania and The Gambia. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 18: 2029.[Crossref]
  18. Thylefors B, Dawson CR, Jones BR, West SK, Taylor HR, , 1987. A simple system for the assessment of trachoma and its complications. Bull World Health Organ 65: 477483.
  19. Basilion EV, Kilima PM, Mecaskey JW, , 2005. Simplification and improvement of height-based azithromycin treatment for paediatric trachoma. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 99: 612.[Crossref]
  20. Munoz B, Solomon AW, Zingeser J, Barwick R, Burton M, Bailey R, Mabey D, Foster A, West SK, , 2003. Antibiotic dosage in trachoma control programs: height as a surrogate for weight in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44: 14641469.[Crossref]
  21. World Health Organization, 2001. WHO Basic Malaria Microscopy. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  22. Steenkeste N, Incardona S, Chy S, Duval L, Ekala MT, Lim P, Hewitt S, Sochantha T, Socheat D, Rogier C, Mercereau-Puijalon O, Fandeur T, Ariey F, , 2009. Towards high-throughput molecular detection of Plasmodium: new approaches and molecular markers. Malar J 8: 86.[Crossref]
  23. Benson DA, Karsch-Mizrachi I, Lipman DJ, Ostell J, Wheeler DL, , 2005. GenBank. Nucleic Acids Res 33: D34D38.[Crossref]
  24. Meremikwu M, Donegan S, Esu E, , 2009. Chemoprophylaxis and intermittent treatment for preventing malaria in children. Cochrane Libr.
  25. Dahl EL, Rosenthal PJ, , 2007. Multiple antibiotics exert delayed effects against the Plasmodium falciparum apicoplast. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51: 34853490.[Crossref]
  26. Girard AE, Girard D, English AR, Gootz TD, Cimochowski CR, Faiella JA, Haskell SL, Retsema JA, , 1987. Pharmacokinetic and in vivo studies with azithromycin (CP-62,993), a new macrolide with an extended half-life and excellent tissue distribution. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 31: 19481954.[Crossref]
  27. Taylor WR, Richie TL, Fryauff DJ, Ohrt C, Picarima H, Tang D, Murphy GS, Widjaja H, Braitman D, Tjitra E, Ganjar A, Jones TR, Basri H, Berman J, , 2003. Tolerability of azithromycin as malaria prophylaxis in adults in northeast papua, indonesia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47: 21992203.[Crossref]
  28. Ward SA, Sevene EJ, Hastings IM, Nosten F, McGready R, , 2007. Antimalarial drugs and pregnancy: safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacovigilance. Lancet Infect Dis 7: 136144.[Crossref]
  29. Konate AT, Yaro JB, Ouedraogo AZ, Diarra A, Gansane A, Soulama I, Kangoye DT, Kabore Y, Ouedraogo E, Ouedraogo A, Tiono AB, Ouedraogo IN, Chandramohan D, Cousens S, Milligan PJ, Sirima SB, Greenwood B, Diallo DA, , 2011. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria provides substantial protection against malaria in children already protected by an insecticide-treated bednet in Burkina Faso: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. PLoS Med 8: e1000408.[Crossref]
  30. Wilson AL, , 2011. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children (IPTc). PLoS ONE 6: e16976.[Crossref]
  31. Naidoo I, Roper C, , 2010. Following the path of most resistance: dhps K540E dispersal in African Plasmodium falciparum . Trends Parasitol 26: 447456.[Crossref]
  32. Roper C, Pearce R, Bredenkamp B, Gumede J, Drakeley C, Mosha F, Chandramohan D, Sharp B, , 2003. Antifolate antimalarial resistance in southeast Africa: a population-based analysis. Lancet 361: 11741181.[Crossref]
  33. Bonate P, , 2000. Analysis of Pretest-Postest Designs. Boca Raton, FL: Chapman and Hall/CRC.[Crossref]
  34. Fisher RA, , 1971. The Design of Experiments. New York: Hafner Press.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0379
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0379
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 25 Jun 2013
  • Accepted : 23 Dec 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error