Volume 90, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



We assessed the effect of mass azithromycin treatment on malaria parasitemia in a trachoma trial in Niger. Twenty-four study communities received treatment during the wet, high-transmission season. Twelve of the 24 communities were randomized to receive an additional treatment during the dry, low-transmission season. Outcome measurements were conducted at the community-level in children < 1–72 months of age in May–June 2011. Parasitemia was higher in the 12 once-treated communities (29.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.5–40.0%) than in the 12 twice-treated communities (19.5%, 95% CI = 13.0–26.5%, = 0.03). Parasite density was higher in once-treated communities (354 parasites/μL, 95% CI = 117–528 parasites/μL) than in twice-treated communities (74 parasites/μL, 95% CI = 41–202 parasites/μL, = 0.03). Mass distribution of azithromycin reduced malaria parasitemia 4–5 months after the intervention. The results suggest that drugs with antimalaria activity can have long-lasting impacts on malaria during periods of low transmission.


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  • Received : 25 Jun 2013
  • Accepted : 23 Dec 2013
  • Published online : 07 May 2014

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