Volume 90, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2–44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Pappas G, Solera J, Akritidis N, Christou L, Tsianos EV, , 2005. New approaches to the antibiotic treatment of brucellosis. Int J Antimicrob Agents 26: 101105.[Crossref]
  2. Corbel M, , ed., 1989. Brucellosis: Epidemiology and Prevalence Worldwide. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc.
  3. Whatmore AM, Perrett LL, MacMillan AP, , 2007. Characterisation of the genetic diversity of Brucella by multilocus sequencing. BMC Microbiol 7: 34.[Crossref]
  4. Godfroid J, Cloeckaert A, Liautard JP, Kohler S, Fretin D, Walravens K, , 2005. From the discovery of the Malta fever's agent to the discovery of a marine mammal reservoir, brucellosis has continuously been a re-emerging zoonosis. Vet Res 36: 313326.[Crossref]
  5. Aguilar E, , 2009. Casos de brucelosis human reportados en Ecuador (1990–2008). Epidemiologia. Quito, Ecuador: Reporte del Ministerio de Salud Publica.
  6. Ron-Roman J, Saegerman C, Minda-Aluisa E, Benitez-Ortiz W, Brandt J, Douce R, , 2012. First report of orchitis in man caused by Brucella abortus biovar 1 in Ecuador. Am J Trop Med Hyg 87: 524528.[Crossref]
  7. Proano-Perez F, Benitez-Ortiz W, Portaels F, Rigouts L, Linden A, , 2011. Situation of bovine tuberculosis in Ecuador. Rev Panam Salud Publica 30: 279286.[Crossref]
  8. Angulo A, Tufiño A, , 2005. Determinacion de la inmunoprevalencia de Brucella spp. en explotaciones ganaderas de los cantones Santo Domingo y El Carmen. Graduate thesis, Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.
  9. Ron-Roman J, , 2003. Validacion de tecnicas diagnosticas para la deteccion de brucelosis y estudio epidemiologico en una region andia del Ecuador. Masters thesis. Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerpen, Belgium.
  10. OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 2009. Bovine Brucellosis, Chapter 2.4.3, Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. Available at: http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/2.04.03_BOVINE_BRUCELL.pdf. Accessed February 19, 2014.
  11. Fosgate GT, Adesiyun AA, Hird DW, Johnson WO, Hietala SK, Schurig GG, Ryan J, , 2002. Comparison of serologic tests for detection of Brucella infections in cattle and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Am J Vet Res 63: 15981605.[Crossref]
  12. Brown LD, Cat TT, DasGupta A, , 2001. Interval estimation for a proportion. Stat Sci 16: 101133.
  13. Rogan WJ, Gladen B, , 1978. Estimating prevalence from the results of a screening test. Am J Epidemiol 107: 7176.[Crossref]
  14. Reiczigel J, Földi J, Ózsvári L, , 2010. Exact confidence limits for prevalence of a disease with an imperfect diagnostic test. Epidemiol Infect 138: 16741678.[Crossref]
  15. Kumar S, Tuteja U, Sarika K, Singh D, Kumar A, Kumar O, , 2011. Rapid multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of the Brucella Genus, B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis . J Microbiol Biotechnol 21: 8992.[Crossref]
  16. Rahman AK, Saegerman C, Berkvens D, Fretin D, Gani MO, Ershaduzzaman M, Ahmed MU, Emmanuel A, , 2013. Bayesian estimation of true prevalence, sensitivity and specificity of indirect ELISA, Rose Bengal Test and Slow Agglutination Test for the diagnosis of brucellosis in sheep and goats in Bangladesh. Prev Vet Med 110: 242252.[Crossref]
  17. Humphry RW, Cameron A, Gunn GJ, , 2004. A practical approach to calculate sample size for herd prevalence surveys. Prev Vet Med 65: 173188.[Crossref]
  18. Olsen SC, Stoffregen WS, , 2005. Essential role of vaccines in brucellosis control and eradication programs for livestock. Expert Rev Vaccines 4: 915928.[Crossref]
  19. Blasco JM, Molina-Flores B, , 2011. Control and eradication of Brucella melitensis infection in sheep and goats. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 27: 95104.[Crossref]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 19 Jun 2013
  • Accepted : 16 Jan 2014

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error