1921
Volume 90, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

The detection of coliforms requires incubation in a laboratory, generally powered using electricity. In many parts of the developing world, however, external energy sources such as electricity are not readily available. To develop a fast, reliable method for detecting coliforms in water without an external energy source, we assessed the efficacy of six test kits for the identification of coliforms in water samples. To assess the possibility of using body temperature as the sole source of heat for incubation, bacterial samples were then mixed with the enzymatic test kit reagent and attached to the human body surface using a patch system. The patches were attached to the bodies of volunteers for 24 hours and the practicality and accuracy of the patches were assessed. Coliforms were detected within 24 hours in all patches. This innovation will facilitate the testing of water quality by researchers and by economically disadvantaged people without electricity.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0349
2014-02-05
2018-12-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/90/2/283.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0349&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. World Health Organization, 2013. Fact sheet No. 330, April 2013. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs330/en/. Accessed May 7, 2013.
  2. World Health Organization, 2013. Water Quality and Health Strategy 2013–2020. Available at: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/2013/water_quality_strategy/en/index.html. Accessed May 7, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  3. Cohn PD, Cox M, Berger PS, Edzwald JK, , 2010. Health and aesthetic aspects of drinking water. American Water Works Association, , eds. Water Quality & Treatment: A Handbook on Drinking Water (Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Series), Sixth edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2.12.84. [Google Scholar]
  4. Payment P, Waite M, Dufour A, Dufour A, Snozzi M, Koster W, Bartram J, Ronchi E, Fewtrell L, , 2003. Introducing parameters for the assessment of drinking water quality. , eds. Assessing Microbial Safety of Drinking Water: Improving Approaches and Methods. London, UK: IWA Publishing, 4777. [Google Scholar]
  5. Savichtcheva O, Okabe S, , 2006. Alternative indicators of fecal pollution: relations with pathogens and conventional indicators, current methodologies for direct pathogen monitoring and future application perspectives. Water Res 40: 24632476.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Lee SG, Jheong WH, Suh CI, Kim SH, Lee JB, Jeong YS, Ko G, Jang KL, Lee GC, Paik SY, , 2011. Nationwide groundwater surveillance of noroviruses in South Korea, 2008. Appl Environ Microbiol 77: 14661474.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2013. Basic Information about Pathogens and Indicators in Drinking Water. Available at: http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/pathogens.cfm. Accessed January 16, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  8. World Health Organization, 2006. Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality [electronic resource]: incorporating first addendum. Volume 1: recommendations. Third edition. Available at: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwq0506.pdf. Accessed January 16, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  9. George I, Petit M, Servais P, , 2000. Use of enzymatic methods for rapid enumeration of coliforms in freshwaters. J Appl Microbiol 88: 404413.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Rompré A, Servais P, Baudart J, de-Roubin M, Laurent P, , 2002. Detection and enumeration of coliforms in drinking water: current methods and emerging approaches. J Microbiol Methods 49: 3154.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Tryland I, Fiksdal L, , 1998. Enzyme characteristics of beta-D-galactosidase- and beta-D-glucuronidase-positive bacteria and their interference in rapid methods for detection of waterborne coliforms and Escherichia coli . Appl Environ Microbiol 64: 10181023. [Google Scholar]
  12. Schumacher EF, , 1973. Small Is Beautiful: Economics as if People Really Mattered. London, UK: Abacus, 64. [Google Scholar]
  13. Murphy HM, McBean EA, Farahbakhsh K, , 2009. Appropriate technology—a comprehensive approach for water and sanitation in the developing world. Technol Soc 31: 158167.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Appropedia, 2013. Appropriate Technology. Available at: http://www.appropedia.org/Appropriate_technology. Accessed May 7, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  15. Kovats S, , 2013. The future of open systems solutions, now. Available at: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/CI/pdf/wsis/WSIS_10_Event/The_Future_of_Open_Systems_Solutions_Now.pdf. Accessed May 7, 2013.
  16. Andrews JR, Prajapati KG, Eypper E, Shrestha P, Shakya M, Pathak KR, Joshi N, Tiwari P, Risal M, Koirala S, Karkey A, Dongol S, Wen S, Smith AB, Maru D, Basnyat B, Baker S, Farrar J, Ryan ET, Hohmann E, Arjyal A, , 2013. Evaluation of an electricity-free, culture-based approach for detecting typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia during enteric fever in a high burden, resource-limited setting. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2292.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Dominguez M, Smith A, Luna G, Brady MF, Austin-Breneman J, Lopez S, Yataco R, Moore DA, , 2010. The MIT D-lab electricity-free PortaTherm incubator for remote testing with the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 14: 14681474. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0349
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0349
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 12 Jun 2013
  • Accepted : 29 Sep 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error