1921
Volume 90, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Rodents are well-recognized reservoirs of , contributing to its maintenance in endemic areas and playing a role in the public health risk associated with the infection. This study sought to provide some insights into rodent populations from Chile and their carriage. In total, 393 rodents were trapped in 177 households. Higher rodent counts were associated with year 2 of the study, rainfall, and number of rodent signs. There was an inverse correlation with the number of cats. The number of rodents was higher in villages compared with slums (rate ratio = 3.23) but modified by average household age. Eighty rodents (20.4%) tested positive for : 19.7% on the farms, 25.9% in villages, and 12.3% in the slums. Prevalence was 22.5% in , 20.7% in , 21.1% in wild rodents, and 10.3% in . Seasonal and temporal effects were the major determinants of infection in rodent populations.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0334
2014-03-05
2017-09-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/90/3/497.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0334&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Abela-Ridder B, Sikkema R, Hartskeerl RA, , 2010. Estimating the burden of human leptospirosis. Int J Antimicrob Agents 36 (Suppl 1): S5S7.[Crossref]
  2. Hartskeerl AR, Collares-Pereira M, Ellis WA, , 2011. Emergence, control and re-emerging leptospirosis: dynamics of infection in the changing world. Clin Microbiol Infect 17: 494501.[Crossref]
  3. Plank R, Dean D, , 2000. Overview of the epidemiology, microbiology, and pathogenesis of Leptospira spp. in humans. Microbes Infect 2: 12651276.[Crossref]
  4. Watkins S, , 1986. Leptospirosis as an occupational disease. Br J Ind Med 43: 721725.
  5. Levett PN, , 2001. Leptospirosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 14: 296326.[Crossref]
  6. Makundi R, Oguge N, Mwanjabe P, Singleton GR, Hinds L, Leirs H, Zhang Z, , 1999. Rodent pest management in East Africa—an ecological approach. , eds. Ecologically-Based Rodent Management. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR, 460476.
  7. Glass GE, Johnson JS, Hodenbach GA, Disalvo CL, Peters CJ, Childs JE, Mills JN, , 1997. Experimental evaluation of rodent exclusion methods to reduce hantavirus transmission to humans in rural housing. Am J Trop Med Hyg 56: 359364.
  8. Yin JX, Geater A, Chongsuvivatwong V, Dong XQ, Du CH, Zhong YH, McNeil E, , 2008. Predictors for presence and abundance of small mammals in households of villages endemic for commensal rodent plague in Yunnan province, China. BMC Ecol 8: 18.[Crossref]
  9. Bonner PC, Schmidt WP, Belmain SR, Oshin B, Baglole D, Borchert M, , 2007. Poor housing quality increases risk of rodent infestation and Lassa fever in refugee camps of Sierra Leone. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 169175.
  10. Meerburg BG, Singleton GR, Kijlstra A, , 2009. Rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health. Crit Rev Microbiol 35: 221270.[Crossref]
  11. Alexander AD, , 1960. The distribution of leptospirosis in Latin America. Bull World Health Organ 23: 113125.
  12. Arias HP, Nunez MG, Valenzuela IG, Olivares AM, , 2003. Brote epidémico de leptospirosis en niños de Linares. Rev Chil Pediatr 74: 405410.[Crossref]
  13. Martinez P, Ortega D, Salinas K, , 2012. Evolucion de la leptospirosis segun el Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiologica Nacional, Chile 2003–2009. Rev Chilena Infectol 29: 648654.[Crossref]
  14. Zamora J, Riedemann S, Montecinos MI, Cabezas X, , 1990. Serological survey of human leptospirosis in a high risk population in Chile. Rev Med Chil 118: 247252.
  15. Zamora J, Riedemann S, Tadich N, , 1999. A serological survey of leptospirosis in sheep in Chile. Rev Latinoam Microbiol 41: 7376.
  16. Silva RF, Riedemann S, , 2007. Frequency of canine leptospirosis in dogs attending veterinary practices determined through microscopic agglutination and comparison with isolation and immunofluorescence techniques. Arch Med Vet 39: 269274.
  17. Zamora J, Riedemann S, , 1999. Wild animals as reservoirs of leptospirosis in Chile. Revision of studies in the country. Arch Med Vet 31: 151156.
  18. Iriarte A, , 2009. Field Guide to the Mammals of Chile. Santiago, Chile: Ediciones Flora y Fauna Chile.
  19. Stoddard RA, Gee JE, Wilkins PP, McCaustland K, Hoffmaster AR, , 2009. Detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp. through TaqMan polymerase chain reaction targeting the LipL32 gene. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 64: 247255.[Crossref]
  20. Murgia R, Riquelme N, Baranton G, Cinco M, , 1997. Oligonucleotides specific for pathogenic and saprophytic leptospira occurring in water. FEMS Microbiol Lett 148: 2734.[Crossref]
  21. Atkins DC, Gallop RJ, , 2007. Rethinking how family researchers model infrequent outcomes: a tutorial on count regression and zero-inflated models. J Fam Psychol 21: 726735.[Crossref]
  22. Linder JM, Lawler RR, , 2012. Model selection, zero-inflated models, and predictors of primate abundance in Korup national park, Cameroon. Am J Phys Anthropol 149: 417425.[Crossref]
  23. Zeileis A, Kleiber C, Jackman S, , 2008. Regression Models for Count Data in R. Journal of Statistical Software 27: 11/28/12. Available at: http://www.jstatsoft.org/v27/i08/. Accessed December 7, 2013.
  24. Harrell FE, Jr, 2012. Regression Modeling Strategies. Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. Available at: http://biostat.mc.vanderbilt.edu/rms. Accessed December 7, 2013.
  25. Bates D, Maechler M, Bolker B, , 2011. lme4: Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using S4 Classes. R package version 0.999375-42. Available at: http://lme4.r-forge.r-project.org. Accessed December 7, 2013.
  26. R Development Core Team, 2012. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Available at: http://www.R-project.org/. Accessed December 7, 2013.
  27. Ortiz J, Venegas W, Sandoval J, Chandía P, Torres-Pérez F, , 2004. Hantavirus in rodents of the VIII region of Chile. Rev Chil Hist Nat 77: 251256.[Crossref]
  28. Mills JN, , 2005. Regulation of rodent-borne viruses in the natural host: implications for human disease. Arch Virol Suppl 19: 4557.
  29. Spotorno AE, Palma RE, Valladares JP, , 2000. Biology of rodent reservoirs of hantavirus in Chile. Rev Chilena Infectol 17: 197210.[Crossref]
  30. Dickman CR, Mahon PS, Masters P, Gibson DF, , 1999. Long-term dynamics of rodent populations in arid Australia: the influence of rainfall. Wildl Res 26: 389403.[Crossref]
  31. Calhoun JB, , 1963. The Ecology and Sociology of the Norway Rat. Bethesda, MD: US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service.[Crossref]
  32. Mutze GJ, Veitch LG, Miller RB, , 1990. Mouse plagues in south Australian cereal-growing areas. II. An empirical model for prediction of plagues. Aust Wildl Res 17: 313324.[Crossref]
  33. Leirs H, Verhagen R, Verheyen W, Mwanjabe P, Mbise T, , 1996. Forecasting rodent oubreaks in Africa: an ecological basis for mastomys control in Tanzania. J Appl Ecol 33: 937943.[Crossref]
  34. Boonstra R, Redhead TD, , 1994. Population dynamics of an outbreak population of house mice (Mus domesticus) in the irrigated rice-growing area of Australia. Wildl Res 21: 583598.[Crossref]
  35. Dowler RC, Katz HM, Katz AH, , 1985. Comparison of live trapping methods for surveying small mammal populations. Northeast Environ Sci 4: 165171.
  36. Stokes MK, Slade NA, Blair SM, , 2001. Influences of weather and moonlight on activity patterns of small mammals: a biogeographical perspective. Can J Zool 79: 966972.[Crossref]
  37. Calderon G, Pini N, Bolpe J, Levis S, Mills J, Segura E, Guthmann N, Cantoni G, Becker J, Fonollat A, Ripoll C, Bortman M, Benedetti R, Enria D, , 1999. Hantavirus reservoir hosts associated with peridomestic habitats in Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis 5: 792797.[Crossref]
  38. Maciel EA, de Carvalho AL, Nascimento SF, de Matos RB, Gouveia EL, Reis MG, Ko AI, , 2008. Household transmission of Leptospira infection in urban slum communities. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e154.[Crossref]
  39. de Faria MT, Calderwood MS, Athanazio DA, McBride AJ, Hartskeerl RA, Pereira MM, Ko AI, Reis MG, , 2008. Carriage of Leptospira interrogans among domestic rats from an urban setting highly endemic for leptospirosis in Brazil. Acta Trop 108: 15.[Crossref]
  40. Malcolm I, , 2006. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing the Transmission of Rodent-Borne Diseases in Southern Africa. London, UK: Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich.
  41. Mgode GF, Mhamphi G, Katakweba A, Paemelaere E, Willekens N, Leirs H, Machang'u RS, Hartskeerl RA, , 2005. PCR detection of Leptospira DNA in rodents and insectivores from Tanzania. Belg J Zool 135: 1719.
  42. Foronda P, Martin-Alonso A, Del Castillo-Figueruelo B, Feliu C, Gil H, Valladares B, , 2011. Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in wild rodents, Canary Islands, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis 17: 17811782.[Crossref]
  43. Perez J, Brescia F, Becam J, Mauron C, Goarant C, , 2011. Rodent abundance dynamics and leptospirosis carriage in an area of hyper-endemicity in New Caledonia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1361.[Crossref]
  44. Desvars A, Naze F, Vourc'h G, Cardinale E, Picardeau M, Michault A, Bourhy P, , 2012. Similarities in Leptospira serogroup and species distribution in animals and humans in the Indian Ocean Island of Mayotte. Am J Trop Med Hyg 87: 134140.[Crossref]
  45. Villanueva SY, Ezoe H, Baterna RA, Yanagihara Y, Muto M, Koizumi N, Fukui T, Okamoto Y, Masuzawa T, Cavinta LL, Gloriani NG, Yoshida S, , 2010. Serologic and molecular studies of Leptospira and leptospirosis among rats in the Philippines. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 889898.[Crossref]
  46. Vinetz JM, Glass GE, Flexner CE, Mueller P, Kaslow DC, , 1996. Sporadic Urban Leptospirosis. Ann Intern Med 125: 794798.[Crossref]
  47. Desvars A, Naze F, Benneveau A, Cardinale E, Michault A, , 2012. Endemicity of leptospirosis in domestic and wild animal species from Reunion Island (Indian Ocean). Epidemiol Infect 141: 11541165.[Crossref]
  48. Rahelinirina S, Leon A, Harstskeerl RA, Sertour N, Ahmed A, Raharimanana C, Ferquel E, Garnier M, Chartier L, Duplantier JM, Rahalison L, Cornet M, , 2010. First isolation and direct evidence for the existence of large small-mammal reservoirs of Leptospira sp. in Madagascar. PLoS One 5: e14111.[Crossref]
  49. Webster JP, Ellis WA, Macdonald DW, , 1995. Prevalence of Leptospira spp. in wild brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) on UK farms. Epidemiol Infect 114: 195201.[Crossref]
  50. Krojgaard LH, Villumsen S, Markussen MD, Jensen JS, Leirs H, Heiberg AC, , 2009. High prevalence of Leptospira spp. in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus). Epidemiol Infect 137: 15861592.[Crossref]
  51. Madhav NK, Wagoner KD, Douglass RJ, Mills JN, , 2007. Delayed density-dependent prevalence of Sin Nombre Virus antibody in Montana deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and implications for human disease risk. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 7: 353364.[Crossref]
  52. Holt J, Davis S, Leirs H, , 2006. A model of leptospirosis infection in an African rodent to determine risk to humans: seasonal fluctuations and the impact of rodent control. Acta Trop 99: 218225.[Crossref]
  53. Turk N, Milas Z, Margaletic J, Staresina V, Slavica A, Riquelme-Sertour N, Bellenger E, Baranton G, Postic D, , 2003. Molecular characterization of Leptospira spp. strains isolated from small rodents in Croatia. Epidemiol Infect 130: 159166.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0334
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0334
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 06 Jun 2013
  • Accepted : 10 Dec 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error