Volume 91, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Convergence of geographic regions endemic for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) raise concerns that HIV co-infection may worsen CL burden, complicating already lengthy and costly CL treatments and highlighting a need for newer therapies. We constructed two Markov decision models to quantify impact of HIV on CL and help establish a target product profile for new CL treatments, accounting for co-infection. The HIV co-infection increased lifetime cost per CL case 11–371 times ($1,349–45,683) that of HIV-negative individuals ($123) and Brazil's CL burden from $1.6–16.0 million to $1.6–65.5 million. A new treatment could be a cost saving at ≤ $254 across several ranges (treatments seeking probabilities, side effect risks, cure rates) and continues to save costs up to $508 across treatment-seeking probabilities with a drug cure rate of ≥ 50%. The HIV co-infection can increase CL burden, suggesting more joint HIV and CL surveillance and control efforts are needed.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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  • Received : 31 May 2013
  • Accepted : 18 Jan 2014
  • Published online : 03 Sep 2014

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