Volume 90, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



We investigated the possibility of transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus through respiratory and physical contact. In this prospective study, we traced 116 close relatives of confirmed CCHF cases who were in close contact with the patients during the acute phase of the infection and evaluated the type of contact between patients and their relatives. These relatives were followed for clinical signs or symptoms indicative of CCHF disease, blood samples of those with and without clinical signs were analyzed for CCHF virus immunoglobulin M and G (IgM and IgG, respectively) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No close relatives developed any signs or symptoms of CCHF and were negative for CCHF virus IgM and IgG. The results suggest that CCHF virus is not easily transmitted from person to person through respiratory or physical contact.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Naderi HR, Sarvghad MR, Bojdy A, Hadizadeh MR, Sadeghi R, Sheybani F, , 2011. Nosocomial outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Epidemiol Infect 139: 862866.[Crossref]
  2. Izadi S, Holakouie-Najeni K, Majdzadeh SR, Chinikar S, Nadim A, Rakshani F, Hooshmand B, , 2006. Seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Sistan-va-Baluchestan province of Iran. Jpn J Infect Dis 59: 326328.
  3. Keshtkar-Jahromi M, Kuhn JH, Christova I, Bradfute SB, Jahrling PB, Bavari S, , 2011. Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever: current and future prospects of vaccines and therapies. Antiviral Res 90: 8592.[Crossref]
  4. Gurbuz Y, Sencan I, Ozturk B, Tutuncu E, , 2009. A case of nosocomial transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever from patient to patient. Int J Infect Dis 13: e105e107.[Crossref]
  5. Yilmaz GR, Buzgan T, Irmak H, Safran A, Uzun R, Cevik MA, Torunoglu MA, , 2009. The epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Turkey, 2002–2007. Int J Infect Dis 13: 380386.[Crossref]
  6. Chinikar S, Ghiasi SM, Hewson R, Moradi M, Haeri A, , 2010. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran and neighboring countries. J Clin Virol 47: 110114.[Crossref]
  7. Midilli K, Gargili A, Ergonul O, Elevli M, Ergin S, Turan N, Sengoz G, Ozturk R, Bakar M, , 2009. The first clinical case due to AP92 like strain of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and a field survey. BMC Infect Dis 9: 90.[Crossref]
  8. Xia H, Li P, Yang J, Pan L, Zhao J, Wang Z, Li Y, Zhou H, Dong Y, Guo S, Tang S, Zhang Z, Fan Z, Hu Z, Kou Z, Li T, , 2011. Epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Yunnan, China, 2008. Int J Infect Dis 15: e459e463.[Crossref]
  9. Altaf A, Luby S, Ahmed AJ, Zaidi N, Khan AJ, Mirza S, McCormick J, Fisher-Hoch S, , 1998. Outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Quetta, Pakistan: contact tracing and risk assessment. Trop Med Int Health 3: 878882.[Crossref]
  10. Maltezou HC, Maltezos E, Papa A, , 2009. Contact tracing and serosurvey among healthcare workers exposed to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Greece. Scand J Infect Dis 41: 877880.[Crossref]
  11. Elata AT, Karsany MS, Elageb RM, Hussain MA, Eltom KH, Elbashir MI, Aradaib IE, , 2011. A nosocomial transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever to an attending physician in North Kordufan, Sudan. Virol J 8: 303.[Crossref]
  12. Mardani M, Keshtkar-Jahromi M, Ataie B, Adibi P, , 2009. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus as a nosocomial pathogen in Iran. Am J Trop Med Hyg 81: 675678.[Crossref]
  13. Tutuncu EE, Gurbuz Y, Ozturk B, Kuscu F, Sencan I, , 2009. Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, precautions and ribavirin prophylaxis: a case report. Scand J Infect Dis 41: 378380.[Crossref]
  14. Athar MN, Khalid MA, Ahmad AM, Bashir N, Baqai HZ, Ahmad M, Balouch AH, Bashir K, , 2005. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, February 2002: contact tracing and risk assessment. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72: 471473.
  15. Gunes T, Engin A, Poyraz O, Elaldi N, Kaya S, Dokmetas I, Bakir M, Cinar Z, , 2009. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in high-risk population, Turkey. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 461464.[Crossref]
  16. Bodur H, Akinci E, Ascioglu S, Onguru P, Uyar Y, , 2012. Subclinical infections with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Turkey. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 640642.[Crossref]
  17. Vorou R, Pierroutsakos IN, Maltezou HC, , 2007. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Curr Opin Infect Dis 20: 495500.[Crossref]
  18. Ergonul O, , 2006. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Lancet Infect Dis 6: 203214.[Crossref]
  19. Nabeth P, Cheikh DO, Lo B, Faye O, Vall IO, Niang M, Wague B, Diop D, Diallo M, Diallo B, Diop OM, Simon F, , 2004. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Mauritania. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 21432149.[Crossref]
  20. Smego RA, Jr Sarwari AR, Siddiqui AR, , 2004. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: prevention and control limitations in a resource-poor country. Clin Infect Dis 38: 17311735.[Crossref]
  21. Papa A, Bino S, Llagami A, Brahimaj B, Papadimitriou E, Pavlidovu V, Velo E, Cahani G, Hajdini M, Pilaca A, Harxhi A, Antoniadis A, , 2002. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Albania, 2001. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 21: 603606.[Crossref]
  22. Izadi S, Salehi M, Holakouie-Naieni K, Chinikar S, , 2008. The risk of transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus from human cases to first-degree relatives. Jpn J Infect Dis 61: 494496.
  23. Mardani M, Rahnavardi M, Rajaeinejad M, Naieni KH, Chinikar S, Pourmalek F, Rostami M, Shahri MH, , 2007. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever among health care workers in Iran: a seroprevalence study in two endemic regions. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 443445.
  24. Fisher Hoch SP, McCormick JB, Swanepoel R, Van Middlekoop A, Harvey S, Kustner HG, , 1992. Risk of human infections with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in a South African rural community. Am J Trop Med Hyg 47: 337345.
  25. Dalgard DW, Hardy RJ, Pearson SL, Pucak GJ, Quander RV, Zack PM, Peters CJ, Jahrling PB, , 1992. Combined simian hemorrhagic fever and Ebola virus infection in cynomolgus monkeys. Lab Anim Sci 42: 152157.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 30 May 2013
  • Accepted : 30 Sep 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error