Volume 90, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



We assessed interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) responses via enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) to a number of Typhi antigens in samples from humans with Typhi bacteremia and typhoid fever in Bangladesh. Compared with responses in healthy endemic zone controls, there were significantly increased IFN-γ responses at the time of clinical presentation (acute phase) and at convalescence 14–28 days later. The majority (80–90%) of IFN-γ expressing T cells were CD4+. We observed a significant increase in interleukin-17 (IL-17) positive CD4 + T cells at convalescent versus acute stage of infection using an intracellular cytokine staining assay. We also found that stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) produced significantly increased levels of a number of cytokines at the convalescent versus acute phase of infection, including IFN-γ, MIP-1β, sCD40L, TNF-β, IL-13, and IL-9. These results suggest that Typhi antigens induce a predominantly Th1 response, but that elevations in other cytokines may be modulatory.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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Supplementary PDF

  • Received : 14 May 2013
  • Accepted : 05 Feb 2014
  • Published online : 04 Jun 2014

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