Volume 90, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–associated disseminated infection often mimics tuberculosis. This disease is well know in the United States but is dramatically underdiagnosed in Central and South America. In the Amazon region, given the available incidence data and the regional HIV prevalence, it is expected that, every year, 1,500 cases of histoplasmosis affect HIV patients in that region alone. Given the mortality in undiagnosed patients, at least 600 patients would be expected to die from an undiagnosed but treatable disease. The lack of a simple diagnostic tool and the lack of awareness by clinicians spiral in a vicious cycle and made a major problem invisible for 30 years. The HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome community should tackle this problem now to prevent numerous avoidable deaths from HIV-associated histoplasmosis in the region and elsewhere.


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  • Received : 27 Apr 2013
  • Accepted : 05 Jun 2013
  • Published online : 05 Feb 2014
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