1921
Volume 89, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Haiti has the lowest rates of access to improved water and sanitation infrastructure in the western hemisphere. This situation was likely exacerbated by the earthquake in 2010 and also contributed to the rapid spread of the cholera epidemic that started later that same year. This report examines the history of the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector in Haiti, considering some factors that have influenced WASH conditions in the country. We then discuss the situation sine the earthquake and subsequent cholera epidemic, and the responses to those events. Finally, drawing on Haiti's National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Cholera in Haiti 2013–2022, we suggest some actions that could help bring about long-term WASH improvements for the future. Because the current WASH situation has evolved over decades of limited attention and resources, it will take a long-term, sustained effort to improve the situation.

[open-access] This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene's Re-use License which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0217
2013-10-09
2019-06-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/89/4/665.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0217&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. World Health Organization/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation, 2012. Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation: 2012 Update. Available at: http://www.wssinfo.org/fileadmin/user_upload/resources/JMP-report-2012-en.pdf. Accessed March 10, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  2. Tappero J, Tauxe R, , 2011. Lessons learned during public health response to cholera epidemic in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Emerg Infect Dis 17: 20872093.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. World Health Organization/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation, 2010. Progress on Sanitation and Drinking-Water: 2010 Update. Available at: http://www.wssinfo.org/fileadmin/user_upload/resources/1278061137-JMP_report_2010_en.pdf. Accessed March 10, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  4. Republic of Haiti: Ministry of Public Health and Population, 2013. Case Report June 2, 2013. Available at: http://www.mspp.gouv.ht/site/downloads/Rapport%20journalier%20MSPP%20du%2002%20juin%202013.pdf. Accessed June 20, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  5. Financial Tracking Service, U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), 2010. Haiti Emergencies for 2010: List of All Humanitarian Pledges, Commitments and Contributions in 2010. Report as of 18-March-2013. Available at: http://fts.unocha.org/reports/daily/ocha_R10c_C91_Y2010_asof___1303111534.pdf. Accessed March 18, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  6. Financial Tracking Service, U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), 2011. Haiti Emergencies for 2011: List of All Humanitarian Pledges, Commitments and Ccontributions in 2011. Report as of 18-March-2013. Available at: http://fts.unocha.org/reports/daily/ocha_R10c_C91_Y2011_asof___1303181410.pdf. Accessed March 18, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  7. Behrmann T, Salomon P, Hudicourt L, , 1900. Haiti: dysentery prevalent in Nippes. Public Health Reports (1876–1970) 15: 497499. [Google Scholar]
  8. Renda M, , 2000. Taking Haiti: Military Occupation and the Culture of U.S. Imperialism. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. [Google Scholar]
  9. United Nations, 1949. Mission to Haiti: Report of the Mission of Technical Assistance to the Republic of Haiti. Lake Success, NY: United Nations Publications. [Google Scholar]
  10. Dewitt RP, , 1987. Policy directions in international lending, 1961–1984: the case of the Inter-American Bank. J Developing Areas 21: 277284. [Google Scholar]
  11. World Bank, 1989. Report No. 7613-HA, Staff Appraisal Report, Haiti. Centrale Autonome Métropolitaine d'Eau Potable (CAMEP), Port-au-Prince Water Supply Project. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Available at: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/1989/04/738627/haiti-port-au-prince-water-supply-project. Accessed June 25, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  12. Fass SM, , 1988. Political economy in Haiti: the drama of survival. New Brunswick: transaction Books, 170. Quoted in Arnold AJ, 1990. Haiti's misery amidst wretched poverty: political economy in Haiti: the drama of survival by Simon M. Fass. Caribbean Q 36: 175177. [Google Scholar]
  13. Reid R, , 1981. Environment and public health in the Caribbean. Ambio 10: 312317. [Google Scholar]
  14. World Bank, 2006. Report No. 38080, Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed Grant in the amount of SDR 3.4 Million (US$5 million equivalent) to the Republic of Haiti for a Rural Water and Sanitation Project. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Available at: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2006/12/7303504/haiti-rural-water-sanitation-project. Accessed June 25, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  15. Nichols AB, , 1987. World's water markets beckon consultants and suppliers. J Water Pollution Control Federation 59: 842850. [Google Scholar]
  16. McRae D, Jr Whittington D, , 1988. Assessing preferences in cost-benefit analysis: reflections on rural water supply evaluation in Haiti. J Policy Anal Manage 7: 246263.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Buss TF, Gardner A, , 2006. Why Foreign Aid to Haiti Failed. Washington, DC: National Academy of Public Administration. Available at: http://www.napawash.org/wp-content/uploads/2006/06-04.pdf. Accessed April 3, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  18. World Bank, 2002. Report No. 23637, Haiti: Country Assistance Evaluation. Washington, DC: The World Bank, Operations Evaluation Department. Available at: http://lnweb90.worldbank.org/oed/oeddoclib.nsf/DocUNIDViewForJavaSearch/718D6FBC34815E5685256B7A007F32F0/$file/haiti_cae.pdf. Accessed April 3, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  19. Chanel IM, , 1999. Haiti: Political Crisis Causing Foreign Aid to Fall. Inter Press Service. Available at: http://www.ipsnews.net/1999/12/haiti-political-crisis-causing-foreign-aid-to-fall/. Accessed April 3, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  20. Walton DA, Farmer PE, Lambert W, Léandre F, Koenig SP, Mukherjee JS, , 2004. Integrated HIV prevention and care strengthens primary health care: lessons from rural Haiti. J Public Health Policy 25: 137158.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Republic of Haiti: National Directorate for Water Supply and Sanitation, 2011. Rapport Annuel 2009–2010. Available at: http://www.dinepa.gouv.ht/index.php?option=com_rokdownloads&view=folder&Itemid=80. Accessed March 18, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  22. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), 2012. Emergency Coordination and the WASH Cluster Initiative. Available at: http://www.unicef.org/wash/index_43104.html. Accessed March 18, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  23. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) Financial Tracking Service, 2013. Haiti: Funding Received 2013. Available at: http://fts.unocha.org/pageloader.aspx?page=emerg-emergencyCountryDetails&cc=hti. Accessed March 18, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  24. Republic of Haiti: Ministry of Public Health and Population, National Directorate for Water Supply and Sanitation, 2013. National Plan for the Elimination of Cholera in Haiti, 2013–2022. Port-au-Prince: Republic of Haiti. Available at: http://new.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=20326&Itemid=270&lang=eng/. Accessed March 18, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2011. Elimination of Cholera Transmission in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/features/cholera.htm. Accessed June 20, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  26. Republic of Haiti: National Directorate for Water Supply and Sanitation, 2011. Reforme, Modernisation et Investissements dans le Secteur de l'Eau Potable et Assainissement en Haiti. PowerPoint Presentation from May 2011. [Google Scholar]
  27. Inter-American Development Bank, 2013. Haiti Port-au-Prince Water and Sanitation Project – II (HA-L1075) Grant Proposal. Available at: http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=37815204. Accessed June 21, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  28. Pan American Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United Nations Children's Fund, 2012. Call to Action: a Cholera-Free Hispaniola. Available at: http://reliefweb.int/report/haiti/call-action-cholera-free-hispaniola. Accessed March 10, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  29. Republic of Haiti: Ministry of Public Health and Population, National Directorate for Water Supply and Sanitation, 2013. National Plan for the Elimination of Cholera in Haiti, 2013–2022, Short Term Plan 2013–2015. Port-au-Prince: Republic of Haiti. Available at: http://new.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=20578&Itemid=270&lang=en. Accessed March 18, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  30. Brikké F, Bredero M, , 2003. Linking Technology Choice with Operation and Maintenance in the Context of Community Water Supply and Sanitation. Geneva: World Health Organization, 45. Available at: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/hygiene/om/wsh9241562153.pdf. Accessed March 18, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  31. Smits S, Tamayo S, Ibarra V, Rojas J, Benavidez A, Bey V, , 2012. Gobernanza y Sostenibilidad de Los Sistemas de Agua Potable y Saneamiento Rurales en Colombia. Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo. Available at: http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=36986189. Accessed March 8, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  32. Gutierrez G, Tapia-Conyer R, Guiscafre H, Reyes H, Martinez H, Kumate J, , 1996. Impact of oral rehydration and selected public health interventions on reduction of mortality from childhood diarrhoeal diseases in Mexico. Bull World Health Organ 74: 189197. [Google Scholar]
  33. Sepulveda J, Valdespino JL, Garcia-Garcia L, , 2006. Cholera in Mexico: the paradoxical benefits of the last pandemic. Int J Infect Dis 10: 413.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  34. Hutton G, Haller L, Bartram J, , 2007. Global cost-benefit analysis of water supply and sanitation interventions. J Water Health 5: 481502.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0217
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0217
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 23 Apr 2013
  • Accepted : 30 Jul 2013
  • Published online : 09 Oct 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error