Volume 90, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



The prevalence and identity of and in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by molecular tools. An overall prevalence of 17% species and 13% , the agent of murine typhus, was found in the cosmopolitan rat species, and that were infested by a majority of fleas. , and three genotypes were identified by sequencing in rat specimens, mostly in . was detected in 72% of pools, the main vector and reservoir of this zoonotic pathogen. Co-infections were observed in rodents, suggesting a common mammalian host shared by and spp. Thus, both infections are endemic in DRC and the medical staffs need to be aware knowing the high prevalence of impoverished populations or immunocompromised inhabitants in this area.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Harrus S, Baneth G, , 2005. Drivers for the emergence and re-emergence of vector-borne protozoal and bacterial diseases. Int J Parasitol 35: 13091318.[Crossref]
  2. Hamel D, Silaghi C, Lescai D, Pfister K, , 2012. Epidemiological aspects on vector-borne infections in stray and pet dogs from Romania and Hungary with focus on Babesia spp. Parasitol Res 110: 15371545.[Crossref]
  3. Salgo MP, Telzak EE, Currie B, Perlman DC, Litman N, Levi M, Nathenson G, Benach JL, Al-Hafidh R, Casey J, , 1988. A focus of Rocky Mountain spotted fever within New York City. N Engl J Med 318: 13451348.[Crossref]
  4. Ceianu CS, Ungureanu A, Nicolescu G, Cernescu C, Nitescu L, Tardei G, Petrescu A, Pitigoi D, Martin D, Ciulacu-Purcarea V, Vladimirescu A, Savage HM, , 2001. West Nile virus surveillance in Romania: 1997–2000. Viral Immunol 14: 251262.[Crossref]
  5. Comer JA, Diaz T, Vlahov D, Monterroso E, Childs JE, , 2001. Evidence of rodent-associated Bartonella and Rickettsia infections among intravenous drug users from Central and East Harlem, New York city. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65: 855860.
  6. Comer JA, Paddock CD, Childs JE, , 2001. Urban zoonoses caused by Bartonella, Coxiella, Ehrlichia species. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 1: 91118.[Crossref]
  7. Lambin EF, Tran A, Vanwambeke SO, Linard C, Soti V, , 2010. Pathogenic landscapes: interactions between land, people, disease vectors, and their animal hosts. Int J Health Geogr 9: 54.[Crossref]
  8. O'Dempsey TJ, Munslow B, , 2006. Globalization, complex humanitarian emergencies and health. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 100: 501515.[Crossref]
  9. Parola P, Paddock CD, Raoult D, , 2005. Tick borne rickettsioses around the world: emerging diseases challenging old concepts. Clin Microbiol Rev 18: 719756.[Crossref]
  10. Bitam I, Baziz B, Kernif T, Harrat Z, Parola P, Raoult D, , 2009. Molecular detection of Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia felis in fleas from Algeria. Clin Microbiol Infect 15 (Suppl 2): 255256.[Crossref]
  11. Parola P, Davoust B, Raoult D, , 2005. Tick- and flea-borne rickettsial emerging zoonoses. Vet Res 36: 469492.[Crossref]
  12. Merhej V, Raoult D, , 2011. Rickettsial evolution in the light of comparative genomics. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 86: 379405.[Crossref]
  13. Greub G, Raoult D, , 2002. Bartonella: new explanations for old diseases. J Med Microbiol 51: 915923.[Crossref]
  14. Houpikian P, Raoult D, , 2001. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Bartonella: what is the current knowledge? FEMS Microbiol Lett 200: 17.[Crossref]
  15. Jadin J, Neuwelaerts Editions, 1951. The Rickettsial Diseases of the Belgian Congo and Rwanda-Burundi. ed. 2, 107.
  16. Eyckmans L, Triest A, , 1960. Rickettsiosis and atypical pneumonia in lower Congo. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 40: 105114.
  17. Laudisoit A, Iverson J, Neerinckx S, Shako JC, Nsabimana JM, Kersh G, Kosoy M, Zeidner N, , 2011. Human seroreactivity against Bartonella species in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Asian Pac J Trop Med 4: 320322.[Crossref]
  18. Singleton J, Cheng L, Nicholson W, Laudisoit A, Zeidner N, , 2009. Use of fried blood spots for serological detection of Rickettsia felis and Rickettsia typhi in Democratic Republic of Congo and Tanzania. Poster presentation. The 23rd Meeting of the American Society for Rickettsiology, Hilton Head, SC.
  19. Sackal C, Laudisoit A, Kosoy M, Massung R, Eremeeva ME, Karpathy SE, Van Wyk K, Gabitzsch E, Zeidner NS, , 2008. Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia felis in fleas, Democratic Republic of Congo. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 19721974.[Crossref]
  20. Gundi VA, Kosoy MY, Makundi RH, Laudisoit A, , 2012. Identification of diverse Bartonella genotypes among small mammals from Democratic Republic of Congo and Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg 87: 319326.[Crossref]
  21. Mediannikov O, Davoust B, Socolovschi C, Tshilolo L, Raoult D, Parola P, , 2012. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks and fleas from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 3: 371373.[Crossref]
  22. Kakura B, Bomboko F, Bisu Lemba P, , 2005. Monogrpahie de la province orientale, République Démocratique du Congo Ministère du Plan Unité de Pilotage du Processus DSRP, Kinshasa, 134.
  23. Van Vliet N, Nebesse C, Gamalemoke S, Akaibe D, Nasi R, , 2012. The bushmeat market in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo: implications for conservation and food security. Fauna & Flora International. Oryx 46: 196203.[Crossref]
  24. Olayemi A, Nicolas V, Hulselmans J, Missoup Ad, Fichet-Calvet E, Amundala D, Dudu A, Dierckx T, Wendelen W, Leirs H, Verheyen E, , 2012. Taxonomy of the African giant pouched rats (Nesomyidae: Cricetomys): molecular and craniometric evidence support an unexpected high species diversity. Zool J Linn Soc 165: 700719.[Crossref]
  25. Laudisoit A, Kisasa R, Kidimbu A, Libois R, , 2005. The ectoparasites of small mammals in Kinshasa: a public health issue? Proceeding of the Scientific Research and African Countries Development Conference Belgium, 151163.
  26. Renesto P, Gouvernet J, Drancourt M, Roux V, Raoult D, , 2001. Use of rpoB gene analysis for detection and identification of Bartonella species. J Clin Microbiol 39: 430437.[Crossref]
  27. Meheretu Y, Leirs H, Welegerima K, Breno M, Tomas Z, Kidane D, Girmay K, de Bellocq JG, , 2013. Bartonella prevalence and genetic diversity in small mammals from Ethiopia. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 13: 164175.[Crossref]
  28. Roux V, Raoult D, , 2000. Phylogenetic analysis of members of the genus Rickettsia using the gene encoding the outer-membrane protein rOmpB (ompB). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50: 14491455.[Crossref]
  29. Montgelard C, Bentz S, Tirard C, Verneau O, Catzeflis FM, , 2002. Molecular systematics of sciurognathi (rodentia): the mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12S rRNA genes support the Anomaluroidea (Pedetidae and Anomaluridae). Mol Phylogenet Evol 22: 220233.[Crossref]
  30. Socolovschi C, Mediannikov O, Sokhna C, Tall A, Diatta G, Bassene H, Trape JF, Raoult D, , 2010. Rickettsia felis-associated uneruptive fever, Senegal. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 11401142.[Crossref]
  31. Walter G, Botelho-Nevers E, Socolovschi C, Raoult D, Parola P, , 2012. Murine typhus in returned travelers: a report of thirty-two cases. Am J Trop Med Hyg 86: 10491053.[Crossref]
  32. Socolovschi C, Kernif T, Raoult D, Parola P, , 2012. Borrelia, Rickettsia, and Ehrlichia species in bat ticks, France, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 19661975.[Crossref]
  33. Barbara KA, Farzeli A, Ibrahim IN, Antonjaya U, Yunianto A, Winoto I, Ester Perwitasari D, Widjaya S, Richards AL, Williams M, Blair PJ, , 2010. Rickettsial infections of fleas collected from small mammals on four islands in Indonesia. J Med Entomol 47: 11731178.[Crossref]
  34. Abramowicz KF, Rood MP, Krueger L, Eremeeva ME, , 2011. Urban focus of Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia felis in Los Angeles, California. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 11: 979984.[Crossref]
  35. Christou C, Psaroulaki A, Antoniou M, Toumazos P, Ioannou I, Mazeris A, Chochlakis D, Tselentis Y, , 2010. Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia felis in Xenopsylla cheopis and Leptopsylla segnis parasitizing rats in Cyprus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 13011304.[Crossref]
  36. Kim HC, Yang YC, Chong ST, Ko SJ, Lee SE, Klein TA, Chae JS, , 2010. Detection of Rickettsia typhi and seasonal prevalence of fleas collected from small mammals in the Republic of Korea. J Wildl Dis 46: 165172.[Crossref]
  37. Azad AF, , 1990. Epidemiology of murine typhus. Annu Rev Entomol 35: 553569.[Crossref]
  38. Dumler JS, Taylor JP, Walker DH, , 1991. Clinical and laboratory features of murine typhus in South Texas, 1980 through 1987. JAMA 266: 13651370.[Crossref]
  39. Angelakis E, Botelho E, Socolovschi C, Sobas CR, Piketty C, Parola P, Raoult D, , 2010. Murine typhus as a cause of fever in travelers from Tunisia and Mediterranean areas. J Travel Med 17: 310315.[Crossref]
  40. Phongmany S, Rolain JM, Phetsouvanh R, Blacksell SD, Soukkhaseum V, Rasachack B, Phiasakha K, Soukkhaseum S, Frichithavong K, Chu V, Keolouangkhot V, Martinez-Aussel B, Chang K, Darasavath C, Rattanavong O, Sisouphone S, Mayxay M, Vidamaly S, Parola P, Thammavong C, Heuangvongsy M, Syhavong B, Raoult D, White NJ, Newton PN, , 2006. Rickettsial infections and fever, Vientiane, Laos. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 256262.[Crossref]
  41. WHO, 2005. Communicable disease toolkit. Democratic Republic of the Congo. 36a: 136.
  42. La Scola B, Zeaiter Z, Khamis A, Raoult D, , 2003. Gene-sequence-based criteria for species definition in bacteriology: the Bartonella paradigm. Trends Microbiol 11: 318321.[Crossref]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 23 Apr 2013
  • Accepted : 29 Sep 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error