Volume 89, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Laboratory-reared were exposed to soil and wild-caught feces for 1 week. Fleas from these two treatments and a control group of laboratory-reared fleas were infected with , the etiological agent of plague. Fleas exposed to soil transmitted to mice at a significantly greater rate (50.0% of mice were infected) than control fleas (23.3% of mice were infected). Although the concentration of in fleas did not differ among treatments, the minimum transmission efficiency of fleas from the soil and wild flea feces treatments (6.9% and 7.6%, respectively) were more than three times higher than in control fleas (2.2%). Our results suggest that exposing laboratory-reared fleas to diverse microbes alters transmission of .


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  • Received : 15 Mar 2013
  • Accepted : 13 May 2013

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