1921
Volume 89, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) led the World Health Organization (WHO) to recommend changes in national drug policies. The time between policy changes and their implementation profoundly affects program impact. We developed a model based on data on antimalarial treatments, extracted from household surveys and national antimalarial policy information from the literature. Drug use in each country during the time period 1999–2011 and the trend in reduction of CQ use after policy change were estimated. The SP use estimates were correlated with the prevalence of a molecular marker associated with SP resistance. There was no spatial pattern in the country-level rate of reduction of CQ use, after policy change. In East Africa SP drug use was strongly correlated to resistance. If artemisinin resistance spreads to, or emerges in, Africa this methodology will be a valuable tool to estimate actual drug use and its impact on changes in drug efficacy.

[open-access] This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene's Re-use License which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0129
2013-11-06
2017-09-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/89/5/857.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0129&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Nuwaha F, , 2001. The challenge of chloroquine-resistant malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Health Policy Plan 16: 112.[Crossref]
  2. Greenwood B, , 2009. Can malaria be eliminated? Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 103S: S2S5.[Crossref]
  3. Roberts L, Enserink M, , 2007. Did they really say…eradication? Science 318: 15441545.[Crossref]
  4. Harinasuta T, Suntharasamai P, Viravan C, , 1965. Chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria in Thailand. Lancet 2: 657660.[Crossref]
  5. Moore DV, Lanier JE, , 1961. Observations on two Plasmodium falciparum infections with an abnormal response to chloroquine. Am J Trop Med Hyg 10: 59.
  6. Young MD, Moore DV, , 1961. Chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum . Am J Trop Med Hyg 10: 317320.
  7. Kihamia CM, Gill HS, , 1982. Chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria in semi-immune African Tanzaniana. Lancet 2: 43.[Crossref]
  8. Fogh S, Jepsen S, Effersoe P, , 1979. Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 73: 228229.[Crossref]
  9. Hellgren U, Ardal OK, Lebbad M, Rombo L, , 1987. Is chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria emerging in Senegal or The Gambia? Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 81: 728.[Crossref]
  10. Kyronseppa H, Lumio J, Ukkonen R, Pettersson T, , 1984. Chloroquine-resistant malaria from Angola. Lancet 1: 1244.[Crossref]
  11. Korenromp EL, Williams BG, Gouws E, Dye C, Snow RW, , 2003. Measurement of trends in childhood malaria mortality in Africa: an assessment of progress toward targets based on verbal autopsy. Lancet Infect Dis 3: 349358.[Crossref]
  12. Trape JF, , 2001. The public health impact of chloroquine resistance in Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64 (Suppl): 1217.
  13. Bjorkman A, Phillips-Howard P, , 1990. The epidemiology of drug-resistant malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 84: 177180.[Crossref]
  14. World Health Organization, 2012. Country antimalarial drug policies by region. Available at: http://www.who.int/malaria/am_drug_policies_by_region_afro/en/index.html. Accessed January 2013.
  15. World Health Organization, 2012. WHO Policy Recommendation: Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) for Plasmodium falciparum malaria control in highly seasonal transmission areas of the Sahel sub-region in Africa. Available at: http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/atoz/smc_policy_recommendation_en_032012.pdf. Accessed January 2013.
  16. Frosch AEP, Venkatesan M, Laufer MK, , 2011. Patterns of chloroquine use and resistance in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of household survey data and molecular data. Malar J 10: 116.[Crossref]
  17. O'Connell KA, Gatakaa H, Poyer S, Njogu J, Evance I, Munroe E, Solomon T, Goodman C, Hanson K, Zinsou C, Akulayi L, Raharinjatovo J, Arogundade E, Buyungo P, Mpasela F, Adjibabi CB, Agbango JA, Ramarosandratana BF, Coker B, Rubahika D, Hamainza B, Chapman S, Shewchuk T, Chavasse D, , 2011. Got ACTs? Availability, price, market share and provider knowledge of anti-malarial medicines in public and private sector outlets in six malaria-endemic countries. Malar J 10: 326.[Crossref]
  18. USAID. Measure DHS Demographic Health Surveys. Available at: http://www.measuredhs.com/. Accessed January 2013.
  19. Childinfo. Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Available at: http://www.childinfo.org. Accessed January 2013.
  20. Naidoo I, Roper C, , 2010. Following the path of most resistance: dhpsK540E dispersal in African Plasmodium falciparum . Trends Parasitol 26: 447456.[Crossref]
  21. Naidoo I, Roper C, , 2011. Drug resistance maps to guide intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in African infants. Parasitology 138: 14691479.[Crossref]
  22. Flegg JA, Patil AP, Venkatesan M, Roper C, Naidoo I, Hay SI, Sibley CH, Guerin PJ, , 2013. Spatiotemporal mathematical modelling of mutations of the dhps gene in African Plasmodium falciparum . Malar J 12: 249.[Crossref]
  23. Mwai L, Ochong E, Abdirahman A, Kiara SM, Ward S, Kokwaro G, Sasi P, Marsh K, Borrmann S, Mackinnon M, Nzila A, , 2009. Chloroquine resistance before and after its withdrawal in Kenya. Malar J 8: 106.[Crossref]
  24. Malisa AL, Pearce RJ, Abdulla S, Mshinda H, Kachur PS, Bloland P, Roper C, , 2010. Drug coverage in treatment of malaria and the consequences for resistance evolution-evidence from the use of sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine. Malar J 9: 190.[Crossref]
  25. Kublin JG, Cortese JF, Njunju EM, Mukadam RAG, Wirima JJ, Kazembe PN, Djimdé AA, Kouriba B, Taylor TE, Plowe CV, , 2003. Reemergence of chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum malaria after cessation of chloroquine use in Malawi. J Infect Dis 187: 18701875.[Crossref]
  26. Mita T, Kaneko A, Lum JK, Bwijo B, Takechi M, Zungu IL, Tsukahara T, Tanabe K, Kobayakawa T, Björkman A, , 2003. Recovery of chloroquine sensitivity and low prevalence of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene mutation K76T following the discontinuance of chloroquine use in Malawi. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68: 413415.
  27. Djimde A, Doumbo OK, Cortese JF, Kayentao K, Doumbo S, Diourte Y, Coulibaly D, Dicko A, Su XZ, Nomura T, Fidock DA, Wellems TE, Plowe CV, , 2001. A molecular marker for chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria. N Engl J Med 344: 257263.[Crossref]
  28. Kazanjian P, Locke AB, Hossler PA, Lane BR, Bartlett MS, Smith JW, Cannon M, Meshnick SR, , 1998. Pneumocystis carinii mutations associated with sulfa and sulfone prophylaxis failures in AIDS patients. AIDS 12: 873.[Crossref]
  29. van Eijk AM, Hill J, Alegana VA, Kirui V, Gething PW, ter Kuile FO, Snow RW, , 2011. Coverage of malaria protection in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa: A synthesis and analysis of national survey data. Lancet Infect Dis 11: 190207.[Crossref]
  30. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS TaM. Affordable Medicines Facility - Malaria. Available at: http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/amfm/. Accessed November 2012.
  31. Shewchuk T, O'Connell KA, Goodman C, Hanson K, Chapman S, Chavasse D, , 2011. The ACTwatch project: methods to describe anti-malarial markets in seven countries. Malar J 10: 325.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0129
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0129
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

Supplementary PDF

  • Received : 11 Mar 2013
  • Accepted : 10 Jul 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error