Volume 89, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Microsatellite markers were used to genetically characterize 19 complex populations from California. Two populations showed characteristics of earlier genetic bottlenecks. The overall F value and a neighbor-joining tree suggested moderate amounts of genetic differentiation. Analyses using Structure indicated = 4 genetic clusters: form pipiens L., Say, form molestus Forskäl, and a group of genetically similar individuals of hybrid origin. A Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components indicated that the latter group is a mixture of the other three taxa, with form pipiens and form molestus contributing somewhat more ancestry than . Characterization of 56 morphologically autogenous individuals classified most as form molestus, and none as form pipiens or . Comparison of California microsatellite data with those of Coquillett from Japan indicated the latter does not contribute significantly to genotypes in California.

[open-access] This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene's Re-use License which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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  • Received : 22 Jan 2013
  • Accepted : 17 Apr 2013
  • Published online : 04 Dec 2013

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