1921
Volume 89, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

We estimated the incidence of watery diarrhea in the community before and after introduction of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in León, Nicaragua. A random sample of households was selected before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction. All children < 5 years of age in selected households were eligible for inclusion. Children were followed every 2 weeks for watery diarrhea episodes. The incidence rate was estimated as numbers of episodes per 100 child-years of exposure time. A mixed effects Poisson regression model was fit to compare incidence rates in the pre-vaccine and vaccine periods. The pre-vaccine cohort ( = 726) experienced 36 episodes per 100 child-years, and the vaccine cohort ( = 826) experienced 25 episodes per 100 child-years. The adjusted incidence rate ratio was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40, 0.91) during the vaccine period versus the pre-vaccine period, indicating a lower incidence of watery diarrhea in the community during the vaccine period.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0026
2013-08-07
2017-11-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/89/2/246.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0026&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. World Health Organization (WHO), 2008. Child mortality by cause among children aged 1–59 months. Available at: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/statistics/mortality_child_cause/en/index.html. Accessed January 10, 2013.
  2. Lorntz B, Soares AM, Moore SR, Pinkerton R, Gansneder B, Bovbjerg VE, Guyatt H, Lima AM, Guerrant RL, , 2006. Early childhood diarrhea predicts impaired school performance. Pediatr Infect Dis J 25: 513520.[Crossref]
  3. Niehaus MD, Moore SR, Patrick PD, Derr LL, Lorntz B, Lima AA, Guerrant RL, , 2002. Early childhood diarrhea is associated with diminished cognitive function 4 to 7 years later in children in a northeast Brazilian shantytown. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66: 590593.
  4. Kosek BC, Guerrant RL, , 2003. The global burden of diarrhea disease, as estimated from studies published between 1992 and 2000. Bull World Health Organ 81: 197204.
  5. Parashar UD, Burton A, Lanata C, Boschi-Pinto C, Shibuya K, Steele D, Birmingham M, Glass RI, , 2009. Global mortality associated with rotavirus disease among children in 2004. J Infect Dis 200 (Suppl 1): S9S15.[Crossref]
  6. Vesikari T, Matson DO, Dennehy P, Van Damme P, Santosham M, Rodriguez Z, Dallas MJ, Heyse JF, Goveia MG, Black SB, Shinefield HR, Christie CD, Ylitalo S, Itzler RF, Coia ML, Onorato MT, Adeyi BA, Marshall GS, Gothefors L, Campens D, Karvonen A, Watt JP, O'Brien KL, DiNubile MJ, Clark HF, Boslego JW, Offit PA, Heaton PM, Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (REST) Study Team; , 2006. Safety and efficacy of a pentavalent human-bovine (WC3) reassortant rotavirus vaccine. N Engl J Med 354: 2333.[Crossref]
  7. Ruiz-Palacios GM, Pérez-Schael I, Velázquez FR, Abate H, Breuer T, Clemens SC, Cheuvart B, Espinoza F, Gillard P, Innis BL, Cervantes Y, Linhares AC, López P, Macías-Parra M, Ortega-Barría E, Richardson V, Rivera-Medina DM, Rivera L, Salinas B, Pavía-Ruz N, Salmerón J, Rüttimann R, Tinoco JC, Rubio P, Nuñez E, Guerrero ML, Yarzábal JP, Damaso S, Tornieporth N, Sáez-Llorens X, Vergara RF, Vesikari T, Bouckenooghe A, Clemens R, De Vos B, O'Ryan M, Human Rotavirus Vaccine Study Group; , 2006. Safety and efficacy of an attenuated vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. N Engl J Med 354: 1122.[Crossref]
  8. Armah GE, Sow SO, Breiman RF, Dallas MJ, Tapia MD, Feikin DR, Binka FN, Steele AD, Laserson KF, Ansah NA, Levine MM, Lewis K, Coia ML, Attah-Poku M, Ojwando J, Rivers SB, Victor JC, Nyambane G, Hodgson A, Schödel F, Ciarlet M, Neuzil KM, , 2010. Efficacy of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 376: 606614.[Crossref]
  9. Madhi SA, Cunliffe NA, Steele D, Witte D, Kirsten M, Louw C, Ngwira B, Victor JC, Gillard PH, Cheuvart BB, Han HH, Neuzil KM, , 2010. Effect of human rotavirus vaccine on severe diarrhea in African infants. N Engl J Med 362: 289298.[Crossref]
  10. Zaman K, Dang DA, Victor JC, Shin S, Yunus M, Dallas MJ, Podder G, Vu DT, Le TP, Luby SP, Le HT, Coia ML, Lewis K, Rivers SB, Sack DA, Schödel F, Steele AD, Neuzil KM, Ciarlet M, , 2010. Efficacy of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in developing countries in Asia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 376: 615623.[Crossref]
  11. Patel M, Pedreira C, De Oliveira LH, Tate J, Orozco M, Mercado J, Gonzalez A, Malespin O, Amador JJ, Umaña J, Balmaseda A, Perez MC, Gentsch J, Kerin T, Hull J, Mijatovic S, Andrus J, Parashar U, , 2009. Association between pentavalent rotavirus vaccine and severe rotavirus diarrhea among children in Nicaragua. JAMA 301: 22432251.[Crossref]
  12. Parashar UD, Hummelman EG, Bresee JS, Miller MA, Glass IR, , 2003. Global illness and deaths caused by rotavirus disease in children. Emerg Infect Dis 9: 565572.[Crossref]
  13. Pérez W, Peña R, Persson LÅ, Källestål C, , 2011. Tracking progress towards equitable child survival in a Nicaraguan community: neonatal mortality challenges to meet the MDG 4. BMC Public Health 11: 455.[Crossref]
  14. Nicaraguan Ministry of Health (MINSA), Epidemiological Bulletin; 2011–2012. Available at: http://www.minsa.gob.ni/index.php?option=com_remository&Itemid=52&func=startdown&id=8281. Accessed January 10, 2013.
  15. de Oliveira LH, Danovaro-Holliday MC, Andrus JK, de Fillipis AM, Gentsch J, Matus CR, Widdowson MA, Rotavirus Surveillance Network; , 2009. Sentinel hospital surveillance for rotavirus in Latin American and Caribbean countries. J Infect Dis 200 (Suppl 1): S131S139.[Crossref]
  16. Levy K, Hubbard AE, Eisenberg JN, , 2009. Seasonality of rotavirus disease in the tropics: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol 38: 14871496.[Crossref]
  17. World Health Organization (WHO), 1992. Readings on Diarrhea: Student Manual. Geneva: WHO.
  18. Espinoza F, Paniagua M, Hallander H, Hedlund KO, Svensson L, , 1997. Prevalence and characteristics of severe rotavirus infections in Nicaraguan children. Ann Trop Paediatr 17: 2532.[Crossref]
  19. Peña R, Pérez W, Meléndez M, Kallestal C, Persson LA, , 2008. The Nicaraguan Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, HDSS-Leon: a platform for public health research. Scand J Public Health 36: 318325.[Crossref]
  20. Staat MA, Azimi PH, Berke T, Roberts N, Bernstein DI, Ward RL, Pickering LK, Matson DO, , 2002. Clinical presentations of rotavirus infection among hospitalized children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 21: 221227.[Crossref]
  21. Salinas B, González G, González R, Escalona M, Materán M, Schael IP, , 2004. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of rotavirus disease during five years of surveillance in Venezuela. Pediatr Infect Dis J 23 (Suppl): S161S167.[Crossref]
  22. Abugalia M, Cuevas L, Kirby A, Dove W, Nakagomi O, Nakagomi T, Kara M, Gweder R, Smeo M, Cunliffe N, , 2011. Clinical features and molecular epidemiology of rotavirus and norovirus infections in Libyan children. J Med Virol 83: 18491856.[Crossref]
  23. Wiegering V, Kaiser J, Tappe D, Weissbrich B, Morbach H, Girschick HJ, , 2011. Gastroenteritis in childhood: a retrospective study of 650 hospitalized pediatric patients. Int J Infect Dis 15: e401e407.[Crossref]
  24. Rodriguez WJ, Kim HW, Arrobio JO, Brandt CD, Chanock RM, Kapikian AZ, Wyatt RG, Parrott RH, , 1977. Clinical features of acute gastroenteritis associated with human reovirus-like agent in infants and young children. J Pediatr 91: 188193.[Crossref]
  25. Nokes DJ, Abwao J, Pamba A, Peenze I, Dewar J, Maghenda JK, Gatakaa H, Bauni E, Scott JA, Maitland K, Williams TN, , 2008. Incidence and clinical characteristics of group A rotavirus infections among children admitted to hospital in Kilifi, Kenya. PLoS Med 5: e153.[Crossref]
  26. Nicaraguan Institute of Geological Studies (INETER), 2001–2011. Daily Rainfall Summary: León, Nicaragua.
  27. Becker-Dreps S, Paniagua M, Zambrana LE, Bucardo F, Hudgens MG, Weber DJ, Morgan DR, Espinoza F, , 2011. Rotavirus prevalence in the primary care setting in Nicaragua after universal infant rotavirus immunization. Am J Trop Med Hyg 85: 957960.[Crossref]
  28. Lopman BA, Payne DC, Tate JE, Patel MM, Cortese MM, Parashar UD, , 2012. Post-licensure experience with rotavirus vaccination in high and middle income countries; 2006 to 2011. Curr Opin Virol. 2: 434442.[Crossref]
  29. Payne DC, Staat MA, Edwards KM, Szilagyi PG, Weinberg GA, Hall CB, Chappell J, Curns AT, Wikswo M, Tate JE, Lopman BA, Parashar UD, New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN); , 2011. Direct and indirect effects of rotavirus vaccination upon childhood hospitalizations in 3 U.S. Counties, 2006–2009. Clin Infect Dis 53: 245253.[Crossref]
  30. Ali M, Emch M, von Seidlein L, Yunus M, Sack DA, Rao M, Holmgren J, Clemens JD, , 2005. Herd immunity conferred by killed oral cholera vaccines in Bangladesh: a reanalysis. Lancet 366: 4449.[Crossref]
  31. Graneto JW, Soglin DF, , 1996. Maternal screening of childhood fever by palpation. Pediatr Emerg Care 12: 183184.[Crossref]
  32. Teng CL, Ng CJ, Nik-Sherina H, Zailinawati AH, Tong SF, , 2008. The accuracy of mother's touch to detect fever in children: a systematic review. J Trop Pediatr 54: 7073.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0026
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0026
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 15 Jan 2013
  • Accepted : 25 May 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error